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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary September 2005
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]


                  MONTHLY GLOBAL TROPICAL CYCLONE SUMMARY

                              SEPTEMBER, 2005


  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)

  *************************************************************************

                             SEPTEMBER HIGHLIGHTS

   --> Above-normal Atlantic activity continues with five hurricanes
   --> Another Category 5 Gulf of Mexico hurricane
   --> Outbreak of activity in Eastern Pacific nets two major hurricanes
   --> Western Pacific active--several typhoons and tropical storms strike
       China and Vietnam

  *************************************************************************

                         ***** Extra Feature *****
                         
                 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES
                             2005 - 2006 SEASON
                            
              TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES for the AUSTRALIAN REGION
                          
     The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three Tropical
  Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC):  Perth, Western Australia; Darwin,
  Northern Territory; and Brisbane, Queensland.  Each centre is allotted
  a separate list of tropical cyclone names for tropical cyclones forming
  within its area of responsibility (AOR).  In addition a TCWC located at
  Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG)--a former Australian territory--
  maintains a list of native names to assign to the very rare tropical
  cyclones which form within its AOR.

     The AORs of the respective centres are:

  (1) Perth - 125E westward to 90E and south of 10S.  Currently, and for
      at least the next few years, the Perth TCWC will issue warnings for
      any systems north of 10S and south and west of the Indonesian
      islands.

  (2) Darwin - 125E eastward to 138E and extending northward to the
      equator.  There is a little irregularity with the eastern border
      in the Gulf of Carpentaria.  The Darwin TCWC issues High Seas
      Warnings for the entire Gulf of Carpentaria, but Brisbane issues
      Tropical Cyclone Advices and names cyclones in the eastern portion
      of the Gulf.  Also, currently, and for at least the next few years,
      the Darwin TCWC will issue warnings for any systems west of 125E
      and within the Indonesian archipelago in the Banda, Flores, and
      Java Seas.

  (3) Brisbane - 138E eastward to 160E and generally south of 10S.  The
      northern border with the Port Moresby AOR is somewhat irregular.

  (4) Port Moresby, PNG - immediate vicinity of the island of New Guinea
      and eastward to 160E generally north of 10S although the southern
      border is somewhat irregular.

     Names for the 2005-2006 season (** indicates name has already been
  assigned as of 10 February 2006):

          Perth          Darwin        Brisbane        Port Moresby
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------

         Bertie **      George          Jim **           Alu
         Clare **       Helen           Kate             Buri
         Daryl **       Ira             Larry            Dodo
         Emma           Jasmine         Monica           Emau
         Floyd          Kim             Nelson           Fere
         Glenda         Laura           Odette           Guba
         Hubert         Matt            Pierre           Hibu
         Isobel         Narelle         Rebecca          Ila
         Jacob          Oswald          Sandy            Kama
         Kara           Penny           Tania            Lobu
         Lee                            Vernon
         Melanie                        Wendy
         Nicholas                       Alfred
         Ophelia                        Blanch
         Pancho                         Charles


           TROPICAL CYCLONE NAMES for the SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN
                      and the SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN

     The Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (TCWC) at Nadi, Fiji, has
  tropical cyclone warning responsibility for the South Pacific east of
  160E and from the equator to 25S.   The Meteorological Service of New
  Zealand at Wellington has warning responsibility for waters south of
  25S, but almost all tropical cyclones in this basin form north of 25S.
  When a rare cyclone forms in the Wellington area of responsibility
  (AOR), it usually will be assigned a name from the Fiji list (such as
  was done for Tropical Cyclone Gita in February, 1999.)

     Tropical cyclone warning responsibility for South Indian waters west
  of 90E are shared by several TCWCs.       The Regional Specialty
  Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for the region is the office of Meteo
  France on the island of La Reunion.  However, following a long-standing
  practice, the Sub-regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centres at Mauritius
  and Madagascar share the responsibility for actually naming tropical 
  storms with Mauritius naming systems east of 55E and Madagascar covering
  the area west of 55E.   RSMC La Reunion issues warnings for the basin 
  independently of Mauritius and Madagascar, but only advises regarding
  when or when not to assign a name to a developing cyclone.

     Names for the 2005-2006 season (** indicates name has already been
  assigned as of 30 January 2006):

          Southwest Indian                       South Pacific
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------

     Alvin **          Nadety                Tam **        Daman
     Boloetse **       Otile                 Urmil **      Elisa
     Carina            Pindile               Vaianu        Funa
     Diwa              Quincy                Wati          Gene
     Elia              Rugare                Xavier        Hettie
     Farda             Sebina                Yani          Innis
     Guduza            Timba                 Zita          Joni
     Helio             Usta                  Arthur        Ken
     Isabella          Velo                  Becky         Lin
     Jaone             Wilby                 Cliff         Mick
     Kundai            Xanda
     Lindsay           Yuri
     Marinda           Zoelle

  ***********************************************************************
  ***********************************************************************
  
                           ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for September:  1 tropical depression **
                           3 hurricanes
                           2 intense hurricanes

  ** - depression formed late on 30 September and will be treated as an
       October cyclone


                        Sources of Information
                        ----------------------

     Most of the information presented below was obtained from the
  various tropical cyclone products issued by the Tropical Prediction
  Center/National Hurricane Center (TPC/NHC) in Miami, Florida:
  discussions, public advisories, forecast/advisories, tropical weather
  outlooks, special tropical disturbance statements, etc.    Some
  additional information may have been gleaned from the monthly
  summaries prepared by the hurricane specialists and available on
  TPC/NHC's website.     All references to sustained winds imply a
  1-minute averaging period unless otherwise noted.


                  Atlantic Tropical Activity for September
                  ----------------------------------------

     Tropical cyclone activity continued at a high level during the month
  of September.  Five systems were named as tropical storms, and all five
  became hurricanes.   Early in the month Hurricane Maria briefly reached
  Category 3 status while recurving in the mid-Atlantic, and Hurricane Nate
  became a strong Category 1 hurricane as it sped into the central Atlantic
  after passing harmlessly south of Bermuda.   Philippe and Ophelia were
  also Category 1 hurricanes.  Whereas Philippe pursued an uneventful track
  northward from its genesis east of the Lesser Antilles, Ophelia followed
  a very erratic track just off the southeastern U. S., eventually brushing
  the North Carolina Outer Banks with hurricane-force winds.   The most
  significant September cyclone was Hurricane Rita, which formed in the
  Bahamas and moved through the Florida Straits, paralleling the Keys as
  it rapidly intensified to hurricane intensity.  Once into the Gulf of
  Mexico, Rita rapidly strengthened into almost a carbon copy of August's
  Hurricane Katrina, becoming the second Category 5 hurricane of the
  season.  Rita followed a generally west-northwesterly track across the
  Gulf and made a devastating strike in the western Louisiana/eastern
  Texas region.

     The average numbers of NS, H and IH for September (1950-2004) are 3.5,
  2.5 and 1.3, respectively, so the month of September, 2005, exceeded the
  mean in all categories.   Over the period 1950-2004, the average NTC for
  the month of September has been 48%--the September, 2005, cyclones
  generated a NTC of 70%.  All the September named cyclones represent the
  earliest formation dates for Atlantic NS with ordinal numbers 13 - 17.
  All the previous record setters occurred during the 1933 season.  The
  following table lists the dates the cyclones reached tropical storm
  intensity during the 2005 and 1933 seasons:

           Number    Name      2005 Date       1933 Date
           ---------------------------------------------
             13     Maria         2 Sep           8 Sep
             14     Nate          6 Sep          10 Sep
             15     Ophelia       7 Sep          16 Sep
             16     Philippe     18 Sep          27 Sep
             17     Rita         18 Sep          28 Sep

     Reports on all the named storms follow.  Another tropical depression
  formed in the Cape Verde region late on September 30.  That system never
  reached tropical storm intensity and will be covered briefly in the
  October summary.  Additionally, at the beginning of the month Tropical
  Depression Lee was meandering in mid-ocean several hundred miles east
  of Bermuda.  Lee had been a minimal tropical storm very briefly on the
  final day of August before being downgraded to depression status only
  six hours after being named.


  NEWS FLASH!!!  TPC/NHC has officially announced that last July's
                 Tropical Storm Cindy has been upgraded briefly to
                 hurricane status.    This brings the number of
                 hurricanes in the record-breaking 2005 season to 15.

                 Another item which may be of interest to many:  in
                 post-storm analysis the peak MSW in Hurricane Wilma
                 was raised to 160 kts.



                            HURRICANE MARIA
                                (TC-14)
                            1 - 12 September
                  ------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Maria was one of the few tropical cyclones of the record-breaking
  2005 Atlantic hurricane season which formed in the so-called Main
  Development Region:  the zone south of 20N and east of the Lesser
  Antilles.   The cyclone pursued a long trajectory which took it from its
  birthplace in the central tropical Atlantic to a point of recurvature
  several hundred miles east of Bermuda, and thence northeastward into the
  far North Atlantic south of Iceland.   Maria briefly became a Category 3
  hurricane on the Saffir/Simpson scale as its winds reached 100 kts for
  a six-hour period on 5 September when the cyclone was centered a few
  hundred miles east of Bermuda.

     Maria's progenitor was a well-organized tropical wave which moved off
  the western coast of Africa on 27 August, and on the 28th an associated
  area of low pressure was located about 390 nm southeast of the Cape Verde
  Islands.    The system gradually became better organized over the next
  few days as it moved west-northwestward, and advisories were initiated on
  Tropical Depression 14 at 1500 UTC on 1 September.   The depression was
  then centered approximately 970 nm east of the northern Leeward Islands,
  moving west-northwestward at 14 kts.  The first visible satellite images
  of the day revealed a well-defined LLCC with an area of deep convection
  to the north.  However, an upper-level LOW to the southwest was producing
  some shear over the depression, so further strengthening was hindered a
  bit.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Maria at 1500 UTC on
  2 September, being located about 765 nm east-northeast of the Leeward
  Islands and approximately 1030 nm southeast of Bermuda.  The MSW was
  estimated at 35 kts, based on T-numbers of 2.5 from all three satellite
  agencies, plus a QuikScat pass showing several uncontaminated 35-kt
  wind vectors with a couple peaking at 45 kts.  Maria was moving slowly
  west-northwestward at 8 kts, and this motion continued, gradually
  becoming northwesterly as the cyclone was guided by a strong subtropical
  ridge to the east and a broad trough over the western Atlantic.  Maria
  steadily intensified and was upgraded to a 65-kt hurricane at 04/0900
  UTC when located about 560 nm east-southeast of Bermuda.  The upgrade
  was based upon T4.0 Dvorak ratings from TAFB and SAB.  SSMI and AMSU
  overpasses near 04/0000 UTC had indicated nearly closed eyewall features,
  and the central convection had increased significantly in depth and
  organization with cloud tops colder than -80 C near the center.

     Steady intensification continued as the hurricane turned to the north
  while nearing the subtropical ridge axis.    Maria reached its peak
  intensity of 100 kts at 0300 UTC on 6 September while moving north-
  northeastward about 420 nm east of Bermuda.   Deep convection had become
  more symmetric about the eye, and subjective Dvorak intensity estimates
  were 102 kts and 90 kts from TAFB and SAB, respectively, while objective
  estimates from CIMSS were near 100 kts.   However, Maria was not to
  remain a Category 3 hurricane for long.  Six hours later the eye had
  become more ragged and open to the west and cloud tops had warmed
  significantly.  The MSW at 0900 UTC was correspondingly reduced to
  90 kts.  The hurricane had by this time rounded the subtropical ridge
  axis and was moving north-northeastward at 6 kts.

     Hurricane Maria weakened rather quickly on 6 September as it moved
  into an environment of unfavorable westerly shear.  Only 24 hours after
  peaking at 100 kts, Maria was downgraded to a 60-kt tropical storm at
  07/0300 UTC.  The cyclone at the time was centered about 550 nm east-
  northeast of Bermuda.   A surprise was in store, however.  A QuikScat
  pass at 07/0850 UTC indicated that Maria was stronger than Dvorak
  intensity estimates alone would suggest with many wind vectors greater
  than hurricane force.  Thus, Maria was re-upgraded to hurricane status
  at 07/1500 UTC with 70-kt winds.  The NHC discussion noted that it was
  difficult to know whether or not Maria had re-intensified due to a trough
  interaction, or had been stronger all along than its satellite signature
  had suggested.  In any case, the trough which had been producing the
  shearing had become indistinguishable from Maria and the cyclone was
  taking on a comma-like appearance, indicative of the first stages of
  impending extratropical transition.

     Maria's second round as a hurricane lasted 36 hours before the storm
  was downgraded again at 09/0300 UTC.  Deep convection was decreasing
  again and the cyclone was over 25 C water and moving into progressively
  cooler SSTs, and all satellite intensity estimates were below hurricane
  strength.  The weakening cyclone was located about 525 southeast of
  Cape Race, Newfoundland, and was moving northeastward at 8 kts--a rather
  slow translational speed for those latitudes.  The resilient Maria
  continued to exist as a tropical cyclone for another 36 hours following
  its second downgrading.  The 09/1500 UTC NHC discussion noted that
  an eye-like feature continued to come and go with bursts of deep
  convection occasionally trying to wrap around the center.  It was felt
  that a combination of cool upper-air temperatures and SSTs holding
  steady around 24-25 C had helped to delay extratropical transition of
  Maria.  However, by 10/0300 UTC Maria was beginning to lose its tropical
  characteristics as it interacted with a mid and upper-level westerly
  trough, and by 0900 UTC the process was complete.  The final advisory on
  Maria issued by NHC placed the 50-kt extratropical cyclone about 625 nm
  northwest of the Azores.  After extratropical transition, the former
  hurricane turned more north-northeastward, and late on 12 September
  reached Iceland.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Maria to the point of
  extratropical transition may be found at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-14L-MARIA.gif>

     A graphic with slightly lower resolution depicting the entire track
  of Maria may be accessed the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-14L-MARIA-B.gif>


  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Hurricane
  Maria.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                             HURRICANE NATE
                                (TC-15)
                            5 - 12 September
                  ------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Hurricane Nate's origins lay within a zone of disturbed weather
  which was associated with a broad surface trough that stretched from
  near Bermuda southwestward to the Bahamas.  Two centers of action
  formed within this trough, the easternmost one becoming Nate and the
  westernmost one developing into Hurricane Ophelia.  The afternoon STWO
  issued by TPC/NHC on 2 September mentioned this area of disturbed
  weather, but noted that upper-level winds were unfavorable for tropical
  cyclone development at the time.  Little change occurred on the 3rd,
  but by the morning of 4 September a well-defined surface low pressure
  system had formed about 350 nm northeast of the Turks and Caicos
  Islands and was drifting slowly northward.  Convection was increasing
  and upper-level winds were gradually becoming more favorable for tropical
  cyclone development.  By the morning of 5 September the low pressure
  system was located approximately 250 nm south-southwest of Bermuda and
  convective activity was increasing.   By afternoon satellite data
  indicated that the system had acquired enough organization to be
  classified as a tropical depression; hence, advisories were initiated
  on Tropical Depression 15 at 05/2100 UTC.   The depression was centered
  about 300 nm south-southwest of Bermuda and was essentially stationary
  after having meandered in a cyclonic loop during the previous few hours.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     Tropical Storm Nate was christened on the second advisory due to
  the presence of a well-defined and robust circulation with convective
  tops to -80 C, Dvorak intensity estimates of 30-35 kts, and a recent
  buoy report to 30 kts west of the center and outside the convection.
  At 06/0300 UTC Nate was centered about 275 nm south-southwest of Bermuda
  and was essentially stationary.  The tropical cyclone remained quasi-
  stationary over the next day and a half while slowly increasing to
  hurricane strength.   Visible satellite images on the morning of the 7th
  showed a ragged eye and Dvorak intensity estimates were averaging about
  70 kts, so Nate was upgraded to a 70-kt hurricane at 1500 UTC while
  located about 200 nm south-southwest of Bermuda.  The storm was moving
  very slowly northward, but the track became northeasterly at a slightly
  increased pace as the day wore on.  The only reconnaissance mission into
  Hurricane Nate was early on the 8th, and the aircraft found a peak 700-mb
  FLW of 85 kts, thus confirming the 75-kt satellite based intensity used
  in the previous two advisories.

     Nate reached its peak intensity of 80 kts at 0300 UTC on 9 September,
  based on intensity estimates of 77 kts from SAB and AFWA and 90 kts from
  TAFB.   Nate had passed about 125 nm south of Bermuda around 0900 UTC
  on the 8th, and by the time of peak intensity was located about 235 nm
  east of the island, moving east-northeastward at 17 kts.  Even as Nate
  reached its estimated peak intensity, the cloud pattern was beginning
  to show the tell-tale signs of increasing upper-level westerly flow,
  and a recent SSM/I pass revealed the presence of very dry air just to
  the north of the hurricane.  Nate's demise was very rapid:  only 12 hours
  after peaking in intensity the storm was almost devoid of any deep
  convection and was downgraded to a 60-kt tropical storm.   Visible
  satellite imagery depicted a badly-sheared cyclone with an exposed LLCC
  resulting from the 25-30 kts of southwesterly shear.   By 1500 UTC on
  10 September Nate's radius of maximum winds had expanded to 90 nm with
  an asymmetric wind distribution.  This, in conjunction with the absence
  of any significant deep convection, was the basis for classifying Nate
  as extratropical.  The final TPC/NHC advisory at this time placed the
  center of Nate about 880 nm west of the Azores and scooting eastward
  at 20 kts.  After extratropical transition the remnants of Nate turned
  northeastward and continued to race into the colder waters of the North
  Atlantic as the winds slowly decreased.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Nate may be found at the
  following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-15L-NATE.gif>


  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Hurricane
  Nate.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                           HURRICANE OPHELIA
                                (TC-16)
                            6 - 20 September
                 -------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     The most erratically-moving tropical cyclone of the remarkable 2005
  Atlantic hurricane season had its origins in a large, stationary trough
  of low pressure which stretched from Florida eastward to near Bermuda
  in early September.   Two areas of concentrated showers and thunder-
  storms formed within this trough, and both were destined to become
  hurricanes.   Ophelia formed from the westernmost disturbance while the
  easternmost system became Hurricane Nate.  Ophelia meandered off the
  southeastern U. S. coast for more than a week on a very erratic track,
  one which rivaled those of Hurricane Ginny of 1963 and Hurricane Kara
  of 1969 in the same region.   The storm also has the distinction of
  being the first Atlantic tropical cyclone on record to have been upgraded
  to hurricane status on four separate occasions.

     A graphic depicting the entire track of Hurricane Ophelia may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-16L-OPHELIA.gif>

     John Diebolt has prepared five smaller-scale maps showing various
  portions of Ophelia's track.  These will be referenced in Section B as
  each phase in the cyclone's history is described.

     The parent trough in which Ophelia developed was first mentioned in
  a TPC/NHC STWO on the afternoon of 2 September.  By the morning of
  4 September a STWO noted that cloudiness and thunderstorms were
  becoming a little more concentrated over the northwestern and central
  Bahamas, the Florida Straits and southeastern Florida.  (At the same
  time the pre-Nate system was beginning to take shape a few hundred miles
  northeast of the Turks and Caicos Islands.)  By the next morning a broad
  area of low pressure was located just off the southeastern coast of
  Florida and was stationary.  Little change in organization had been
  noted and upper-level winds were only marginally favorable for further
  development.  By early on the 6th satellite and radar data, along with
  nearby surface observations, indicated that the system was becoming
  better-defined and convection had increased.   Advisories were begun
  on Tropical Depression 16 at 06/1500 UTC, then centered just east of
  Freeport on Grand Bahama Island and about 155 nm southeast of Cape
  Canaveral, Florida.  Even though the initial advisory intensity was
  only 25 kts, due to the proximity to the coast and the forecast for
  further strengthening, a tropical storm warning was issued with the first
  advisory for portions of the Florida east coast and for the northwestern
  Bahamas.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

  Phase 1 - Just off Florida's East Coast
  ---------------------------------------

     The graphic depicting this phase of Ophelia's life may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-16L-OPHELIA-A.gif>

     Tropical Depression 16 tracked northward across Grand Bahama Island
  and continued in this general direction, paralleling the Florida coast.
  Little strengthening occurred during the first 18 hours, but at 0600 UTC
  on 7 September the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ophelia,
  located approximately 100 nm east-southeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida,
  and moving north-northwestward at about 4 kts.   The intensity of 35 kts
  was based on a blend of surface reports of 33 kts from drifting buoy
  41542, located just northeast of the center, and Doppler radar velocities
  of 36-44 kts between 3050 and 3650 meters.  The highest reconnaissance
  wind report was 42 kts in the northwestern quadrant.   Ophelia steadily
  intensified as it meandered just off Florida's East Coast.  Steering
  currents were weak and the storm described a small counter-clockwise
  loop between 07/1800 and 09/0600 UTC less than 100 nm east of Cape
  Canaveral.

     During this period vertical shear which had been inhibiting the
  cyclone's intensification lessened and Ophelia responded by increasing
  to hurricane intensity at 08/2100 UTC.  At this time the storm was
  stationary about 60 nm east-northeast of Cape Canaveral.  The upgrade
  to hurricane strength was based primarily on Doppler radar velocities
  of 80-85 kts in the southern eyewall at an elevation of about 1980 meters
  along with a reconnaissance-measured CP of 985 mb.   Ophelia exhibited
  well-defined outflow in all quadrants except the southeast.  By 0600 UTC
  on 9 September the storm was drifting north-northeastward and had
  completed the small loop.  However, the radar signature of Ophelia had
  deteriorated significantly and the highest dropsonde wind measured by
  a reconnaissance aircraft was 58 kts near the surface, so Ophelia was
  downgraded to a 55-kt tropical storm at 0900 UTC.  A shortwave trough
  to the west was helping to lift Ophelia to the northeast, but all the
  model guidance indicated that the cyclone would be left behind as high
  pressure built over the eastern U. S.  This is exactly what happened.


  Phase 2 - Loop off the Georgia and South Carolina Coasts
  --------------------------------------------------------

     The graphic depicting this phase of Ophelia's life may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-16L-OPHELIA-B.gif>

     Ophelia did not remain below hurricane intensity for long.  At 2100
  UTC on 9 September the cyclone was upgraded to hurricane status for the
  second time.  This was supported by subjective intensity estimates from
  all agencies and objective T-numbers, a NOAA reconnaissance measurement
  of 72-kt winds at 700-mb along with a CP of 983 mb, SFMR winds near the
  surface of 62 kts, and a 10-nm diameter circular eye.   Ophelia's center
  at this time was located about 150 nm east-northeast of Daytona Beach,
  Florida, and was moving northeastward near 6 kts.   However, during the
  evening hours Ophelia's satellite signature became less impressive
  with a significant decrease in both the coverage and intensity of the
  convection, so at 0900 UTC on 10 September Ophelia was downgraded to
  a 60-kt tropical storm.   The 0600 UTC Dvorak numbers had come down a bit
  to T3.5, and the highest 850-mb FLW was 70 kts--corresponding to about
  56 kts at the surface.   Re-strengthening was forecast, however, and this
  verified.  Only six hours later, at 10/1500 UTC, Ophelia was upgraded to
  hurricane intensity for the third time based on a CP of 976 mb measured
  by a reconnaissance plane and a peak 700-mb FLW of 78 kts.

     After the third upgrade the yoyoing in intensity leveled off somewhat
  and Ophelia remained a hurricane for over two days, reaching an initial
  peak intensity of 75 kts at 11/1200 UTC in spite of light to moderate
  westerly shear and dry air to the west of the cyclone.  During this time
  Ophelia's northeasterly motion slowed as the storm was blocked by high
  pressure to the north.  Between around 10/0600 and 12/0600 UTC the
  hurricane described a small clockwise loop.  The easternmost point of
  the loop came around 11/1200 UTC when the hurricane was centered about
  220 nm east-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina, and a like distance
  south of Cape Hatteras.  After this, Ophelia drifted to the southwest,
  then took off toward the west-northwest, completing the loop and getting
  into a position to pose a threat to the southeastern U. S. coastline.  
  Indeed, a hurricane watch for portions of the coast had been issued as 
  early as 1800 UTC on the 10th in the anticipation that Ophelia would
  eventually move in that direction.


  Phase 3 - Close Approach to the North Carolina Coast
  ----------------------------------------------------

     The graphic depicting this phase of Ophelia's life may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-16L-OPHELIA-C.gif>

     Shortly after completing the clockwise loop, Ophelia weakened once
  more to below hurricane intensity.  At 12/1500 UTC the cyclone was down-
  graded to a 60-kt tropical storm.  The latest reconnaissance flight had
  found a peak 700-mb FLW of only 63 kts, and the discussion bulletin noted
  that 60 kts might be generous given the current lack of deep convection.
  Given that Ophelia had moved little over the previous couple of days, it
  was thought that upwelling and cooling of the SSTs was the most likely
  reason for the storm's temporary decline.   Ophelia's slow northwesterly
  motion continued through 13/0600 UTC, after which the storm took an
  abrupt northward jog.   By the afternoon of the 13th Ophelia was once
  more becoming better organized with inner core convection increasing in
  both coverage and intensity as it continued trekking northward toward the
  North Carolina coast.

     The discussion bulletin accompanying the 13/2100 UTC advisory noted
  that a peak 700-mb FLW of 76 kts had been found in the northwestern
  quadrant with Doppler velocity data from Wilmington indicating winds as
  high as 80 kts at 3000 m in the same quadrant.  Normally, these winds
  would support hurricane force at the surface, but the observations had
  been made in the vicinity of NOAA buoy 41004, which had been reporting
  sustained surface winds of only 43 kts.   However, at 2130 UTC a special
  advisory was issued, upgrading Ophelia to a hurricane for an
  unprecedented fourth time.  This was based on SFMR winds of 63-66 kts
  north-northwest of the center beneath 1220 m FLWs of 83 kts.  The center
  of Hurricane Ophelia was then located about 95 nm south of Wilmington,
  North Carolina, moving north-northwestward at 3 kts.  The hurricane
  continued to approach the coast on the 14th, but the track began to
  increasingly turn toward the northeast.

     Hurricane Ophelia reached its peak intensity of 75 kts for the second
  time at 14/1800 UTC when the 50-nm diameter eye was centered only about
  35 nm southeast of Wilmington.  The storm's motion had by this time
  become north-northeasterly at 6 kts.  The center of the hurricane was
  forecast to make landfall near Cape Lookout, but Ophelia's track
  continued to bend eastward and the center never actually made landfall
  (defined as the exact center of the eye crossing a coastline).
  Nonetheless, the northern eyewall did sweep across the Outer Banks as
  Ophelia's center passed to the south.  Late on the 14th Cape Lookout
  reported a 10-min mean wind of 64 kts.  The peak MSW of 75 kts was
  maintained for 18 hours, then began to slowly decline.  Ophelia was
  downgraded to tropical storm status for the fourth time at 0000 UTC on
  16 September while moving erratically eastward about 40 nm south-
  southeast of Cape Hatteras.   A few hours later the storm was drifting
  northward about 35 nm east of Cape Hatteras, but by 1200 UTC Ophelia's
  track had become north-northeasterly as it slowly began to accelerate
  away from the North Carolina Outer Banks.

     During the hour preceding 15/0100 UTC Cape Lookout reported a
  10-min avg wind of 58 kts with a peak gust of 75 kts.  Between 1400
  and 1500 UTC on the 15th there was an unofficial report of a sustained
  wind of 57 kts with a peak gust of 72 kts at Cape Hatteras, while
  nearby Hatteras Village reported a sustained wind of 56 kts with a
  peak gust of 83 kts around the same time.  Ophelia at the time was
  centered less than 30 nm south-southwest of Cape Hatteras.  Later,
  during the evening, a NOAA buoy located at Diamond Shoals reported
  a gust of 74 kts.


  Phase 4 - North Carolina to Nova Scotia
  ---------------------------------------

     The graphic depicting this phase of Ophelia's life may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-16L-OPHELIA-D.gif>

     As Ophelia began to move away from the North Carolina coast it was
  becoming embedded in the westerlies, and as a high-pressure system to
  the east was forecast to weaken, the storm was correspondingly forecast
  to accelerate toward the northeast.  By 17/0000 UTC the storm's motion
  had become northeasterly at 14 kts and twelve hours later Ophelia had
  accelerated to 18 kts.  The MSW was decreased to 50 kts at 16/1200 UTC
  since the cyclone presented a sheared appearance with deep convection
  mainly in the northeastern quadrant.  Also, a reconnaissance plane
  found a peak 850-mb FLW of 61 kts.  However, during the afternoon Ophelia
  had become better organized once more with convection making attempts
  to wrap around the west side of the LLCC.  The CP had fallen to 993 mb
  (from 996 mb earlier in the day) and a NOAA plane measured 73-kt winds
  at 700 mb and the SFMR measured 59-kt surface winds.  Furthermore,
  the first-ever successful aerosonde flight into the core of a tropical
  cyclone reported 74-kt winds at 760 meters.  So based on all this data,
  the intensity was increased slightly to 55 kts at 16/2100 UTC.

     At that time the storm was centered about 310 nm south-southwest of
  Nantucket Island, and Ophelia made its closest approach to the Massa-
  chusetts coast around 1200 UTC on 17 September when it passed about
  83 nm south of Nantucket.  By late morning of the 17th Ophelia had
  moved north of the Gulf Stream and was beginning to slowly lose tropical
  characteristics as it sped toward Nova Scotia.  By 2100 UTC the cyclone's
  center was about 180 nm southwest of Halifax and moving northeastward
  at 21 kts.  NHC issued their final advisory on Ophelia at 18/0300 UTC
  with the center located about 40 nm south-southwest of Halifax and
  moving northeastward at 25 kts.  By this time there was no deep
  convection within 120 nm of the center and SSTs were around 16-17 C,
  so the system was classified as an extratropical cyclone with peak
  winds of around 45 kts.


  Phase 5 - Extratropical Ophelia
  -------------------------------

     The graphic depicting this phase of Ophelia's life may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-16L-OPHELIA-E.gif>

     Based upon information released by the Canadian Hurricane Centre and
  sent to the author by Chris Fogarty, the center of Ophelia tracked just
  south of western Nova Scotia and Halifax and made landfall as a post-
  tropical storm near Sheet Harbour, Halifax County, with a MSW over water
  of 45 kts.  The center went over Sydney and then moved through south-
  eastern Newfoundland during the evening of 18 September.  The remnants
  of Ophelia continued to track eastward across the North Atlantic as they
  slowly weakened, being located several hundred miles west of Ireland
  when referenced for the last time in OPC marine warnings at 20/1200 UTC.

     Following is an extended track for the cyclone as it crossed the
  Canadian Maritimes, prepared by Chris Fogarty of the Canadian Hurricane
  Centre.  This was not available to the author when the companion cyclone
  tracks file was prepared--the extratropical portion of Ophelia in that
  file was based strictly on the OPC warnings.  John Diebolt's graphic
  for the post-tropical Ophelia were based upon the OPC positions and
  does not depict the center crossing Nova Scotia as it actually did.

        LAT     LON   mmddhh   MSW     MSLP
       ---------------------------------------------------
       43.90  -64.00  091803    45     998  Tropical storm
       44.50  -62.90  091806    45     999  Extratropical
       45.20  -61.80  091809    45     999  "
       46.15  -60.10  091812    40     999  "
       46.80  -58.00  091815    45     999  "
       47.40  -56.00  091818    45     998  "
       47.90  -54.70  091821    45     998  "
       48.40  -53.40  091900    45     998  "

     Chris Fogarty has prepared a rather thorough report on Ophelia which
  can be accessed at the following link:

     http://www.novaweather.net/Hurricane_Ophelia/Ophelia_report_CHC.pdf>

  Additional information can be found at the following site:

     http://projects.novaweather.net/work.html>


  C. Rainfall Information
  -----------------------

     A graphic prepared by David Roth of the Hydrometeorological Prediction
  Center depicting rainfall amounts recorded in association with Hurricane
  Ophelia may be found at the following link:

     http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/ophelia2005.html>


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     One fatality was attributed to Hurricane Ophelia--a drowning along
  the southeastern Florida coast.  The storm caused $1.6 billion in
  damages in the United States with significant beach erosion from North
  Carolina southward to the central Florida coast.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)


                   ADDENDUM to Hurricane Ophelia Report
                   ------------------------------------

     After disseminating Part 1 of the September summary which contained
  the report on Hurricane Ophelia, I received an e-mail from Steve Miller
  of the Canadian Hurricane Centre informing me that Ophelia was blamed
  for one death in Nova Scotia.  A man died from injuries sustained when
  he fell off his roof while checking for leaks during rain associated
  with the passage of Ophelia.  The fatality was described by local
  policemen as a "weather-related death".  (Thanks to Steve for sending
  me this information.)



                            HURRICANE PHILIPPE
                                 (TC-17)
                             17 - 24 September
                  --------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Philippe was an inconsequential hurricane which formed east of the
  Lesser Antilles in mid-September and pursued an unusual almost due
  northward track.  The most noteworthy fact concerning Philippe was that
  after Hurricane Emily in July, it was the only other tropical cyclone of
  the 2005 season to reach hurricane intensity east of the Lesser Antilles
  and south of latitude 20N--the zone usually considered to be the primary
  formation region for major Atlantic hurricanes in active seasons.

     The precursor of Philippe was a tropical wave which, by the morning
  of 14 September, was showing signs of organization about 1000 nm east-
  southeast of the Windward Islands.  Upper-level winds had not been
  particularly favorable for development during the previous few days,
  but the environment was forecast to become more conducive for tropical
  cyclogenesis over the next couple of days.  The wave continued to very
  slowly become better-organized as it trekked westward.  By the afternoon
  of 16 September it was located about 390 nm east-southeast of the
  southern Windward Islands and a surface low-pressure center appeared
  to be forming.  The system was by now moving west-northwestward and the
  development of a tropical depression was considered a distinct
  possibility over the next day or so as upper-level winds had become much 
  more favorable.  The first advisory on Tropical Depression 17 was issued 
  at 1500 UTC on 17 September, placing the center approximately 265 nm 
  east of the island of Barbados and moving northwestward at 8 kts.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     The depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Philippe on the third
  advisory, issued at 17/0300 UTC.   The 35-kt initial intensity was a
  blend of 45 kts from TAFB, 35 kts from SAB and 25 kts from AFWA.  A
  burst of deep convection had developed over and south of the LLCC,
  which was estimated to be located about 255 nm east-northeast of
  Barbados.  Philippe was moving slowly north-northwestward at only
  4 kts, roughly parallel to the Lesser Antilles chain, and strengthened
  slowly during the first 24 hours after becoming a tropical storm.  The
  MSW had reached 45 kts by 18/2100 UTC, although the discussion bulletin
  noted that a burst of deep convection with cloud tops colder than
  -80 C had developed near the circulation center during the previous
  two hours.  A USAF Hurricane Hunters' plane reached the cyclone around
  19/0000 UTC and measured a peak 850-mb FLW of 83 kts in the northeast
  eyewall.  Also, a dropsonde measured a surface pressure of 988 mb in
  the eye, but since the wind was 17 kts, the CP was estimated to be
  slightly lower.  Based on these findings, Philippe was upgraded to
  the season's eighth hurricane at 19/0300 UTC with 65-kt winds.  The
  cyclone's center was then located about 340 nm east of the Leeward
  Islands, still continuing its north-northwestward motion at 7 kts as
  it trekked toward a weakness in the subtropical ridge along 60W.

     Philippe reached its peak intensity of 70 kts at 20/0300 UTC.  Even
  though the storm's appearance in satellite imagery had not improved
  all that much and banding features were not particularly well-defined,
  Dvorak intensity estimates indicated that Philippe had strengthened a
  bit.  However, the hurricane had no sooner reached its peak than it
  began to come under the influence of some westerly shearing due to the
  flow at the base of a broad upper-tropospheric trough associated with
  the outflow of the intensifying Hurricane Rita to the west.  By 1500 UTC
  on the 20th the LLCC was becoming exposed and the winds were lowered to
  65 kts, and at 2100 UTC Philippe was downgraded to a 55-kt tropical
  storm, then located about 265 nm east-northeast of the Leeward Islands.
  Philippe's intensity remained pegged at 55 kts for 18 hours, but
  eventually westerly shear and subsidence from a large upper-level cyclone
  to the west-northwest of the storm led to further weakening.  The MSW was
  reduced to 45 kts at 21/1500 UTC and continued to fall, reaching minimal
  tropical storm intensity by 22/0900 UTC.  Philippe's poorly-organized
  center at this time was located about 450 nm northeast of the Leeward
  Islands, moving toward the north at 10 kts.

     Philippe remained a minimal tropical storm for the next 30 hours as
  it moved northward at an accelerating pace.  By 2100 UTC on the 22nd
  the storm was centered about 470 nm southeast of Bermuda and moving
  northward at 15 kts.  By this time Philippe was a small tropical cyclone
  embedded within a broad non-tropical area of low pressure.  Indeed, there
  was some question as to whether or not Philippe still had a closed
  surface wind circulation.   During the night of 22-23 September Philippe
  made a sharp turn toward the northwest and temporarily accelerated up
  to 20-22 kts.  By 23/0900 UTC the cyclone's motion had become west-
  northwesterly--in the direction of Bermuda--but had slowed a bit to
  16 kts.   Philippe's center at the time was located about 255 nm east-
  southeast of Bermuda.  Satellite intensity estimates were 35 kts from
  TAFB and 25 kts from SAB.  Interestingly, AFWA came in with a 45-kt
  subtropical cyclone intensity estimate using the center of the large
  LOW much farther to the south.

     A precautionary tropical storm watch had been issued for Bermuda, but
  this was discontinued at 23/2100 UTC when Philippe was downgraded to
  a tropical depression, located about 150 nm south of Bermuda.  The
  system's track had turned to the west-southwest as it continued to rotate
  around the northern periphery of the broader cyclonic circulation to the
  south.   By 24/0300 UTC all that remained of Philippe was a small swirl
  of low clouds and the final advisory was issued.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Philippe may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-17L-PHILIPPE.gif>


  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical Storm
  Philippe.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                             HURRICANE RITA
                                 (TC-18)
                            18 - 26 September
                  -------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Boasting measurements of 150 kts and 897 mb, Hurricane Rita became
  the second Category 5 hurricane of the 2005 season, the first occasion
  since 1961 that two storms reached the superlative classification of
  the Saffir/Simpson scale.  Rita was in several aspects very similar
  to the earlier Katrina:  both formed in the Bahamas region, both passed
  over or near South Florida, both reached Category 5 intensity in the
  central Gulf of Mexico, and both made landfall along the northern Gulf
  of Mexico coastline.   Rita passed through the Florida Straits just
  south of the Keys while Katrina had crossed the southern portion of
  the Peninsula, and Rita's landfall occurred farther west than the
  earlier hurricane, striking extreme western Louisiana and southeastern
  Texas.  The 897-mb central pressure measured on 21 September was the
  third lowest (at the time) ever measured in an Atlantic hurricane,
  exceeded only by Hurricane Gilbert of 1988 (888 mb) and the Florida
  Keys hurricane of 1935 (892 mb).  However, slightly over one month
  later Hurricane Wilma would set a new low-pressure record for the
  Atlantic basin of 882 mb.

     On 15 September an area of disturbed weather was located a couple
  hundred miles northeast of Puerto Rico, moving westward at around 9 to
  13 kts with no imminent signs of tropical cyclone development.  By the
  next afternoon a sharp trough of low pressure was producing a large area
  of convection north of the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and the
  Leeward Islands, extending northward into the Atlantic for a few hundred
  miles.   Thunderstorm activity had become more concentrated about 175 nm
  north of the northern Leewards and upper-level winds were gradually
  becoming more favorable for development.  By midday on the 17th a broad
  area of low pressure had developed about 225 nm east of the Turks and
  Caicos Islands.  During the afternoon and evening the system's organi-
  zation continued to improve as it moved west-northwestward at about
  9 kts, and the first advisory on Tropical Depression 18 was issued by
  TPC/NHC at 0300 UTC on 18 September.  The depression, with peak winds
  estimated at 25 kts, was centered about 85 nm east-northeast of Grand
  Turk Island.   In anticipation of the system's intensifying, tropical
  storm warnings and a hurricane watch were issued for portions of the
  Bahamas.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     Gradual organization of the depression continued through the night of
  17-18 September, and a reconnaissance plane around midday on the 18th
  found a CP of 1005 mb and peak FLWs of 45 kts well to the northeast of
  the center.  These observations, along with ship reports of 30-35 kts,
  were the basis for upgrading TD-18 to Tropical Storm Rita at 2100 UTC.
  An upper-level LOW over eastern Cuba was causing some southerly shear
  which was displacing all the convection to the north of the center.
  Rita's center was then located about 310 nm east-southeast of Nassau,
  moving west at 9 kts.  Based on the track and intensity forecasts, a
  hurricane watch was issued for the Florida Keys.  The cyclone's
  convective organization continued to improve early on 19 September with
  convection wrapping to the northwest of the center with more banding
  evident.   Later in the morning substantial inner core convection had
  developed and Rita's winds had reached 60 kts--just shy of hurricane
  intensity--by 1800 UTC.  The storm at that time was centered only
  about 25 nm south-southwest of Georgetown on Great Exuma Island and
  about 330 nm east-southeast of Key West, moving west-northwestward
  at 12 kts.

     Rita remained a strong 60-kt tropical storm for 18 hours as it
  continued generally west-northwestward toward the Florida Straits.  The
  cyclone was upgraded to the season's ninth hurricane at 20/1500 UTC
  when the center was located about 65 nm southeast of Key West, Florida.
  Doppler radar peak winds at 1500-3000 m were oscillating between 90
  and 95 kts with an isolated peak of 100 kts, and dropsondes in the
  eyewall supported an intensity of 75 kts with a CP of 982 mb.  Rita at
  the time was moving due westward at 13 kts south of a deep-layer ridge.
  The hurricane wasted no time in intensifying--a special advisory was
  issued at 1800 UTC upping the MSW to 85 kts, making Rita a Category 2
  hurricane located only about 45 nm south of Key West.  A reconnaissance
  mission scheduled for early on 21 September was scrubbed due to
  electronics problems, but before Rita's eye had moved out of range of
  the Key West WSR-88D, winds of 100-115 kts were seen between 2750 and
  3960 m, and with a consensus satellite intensity of 115 kts from TAFB,
  AFWA and SAB, the intensity was upped to 100 kts at 21/0600 UTC and to
  105 kts three hours later.  The 21/0900 UTC discussion bulletin noted
  that, based on the satellite signature, that figure might be
  conservative.

     Three hours later, at 21/1200 UTC, Rita had become a very dangerous
  Category 4 hurricane with 115-kt winds about 170 nm west of Key West.
  Objective T-numbers from both TAFB and CIMSS were already reaching
  T7.0, or 140 kts.  A reconnaissance plane reached the hurricane around
  midday and found that the pressure had fallen significantly, reaching
  920 mb around 1753 UTC.  A peak 700-mb FLW of 161 kts was measured along
  with a surface wind of 146 kts from the SFMR.  Thus, at 2100 UTC Rita
  was upgraded to the season's second Category 5 hurricane with the MSW
  estimated at 145 kts.  The extremely dangerous hurricane was then
  centered south of the western Florida Panhandle or about 520 nm east-
  southeast of Galveston, Texas.  Rita was still moving west at 11 kts,
  but a gradual turn toward the west-northwest and then northwest was
  forecast to occur over the next few days.  A hurricane watch was issued
  for the western Louisiana coast and portions of the Texas coastline.

     Rita's pressure continued to fall--a reconnaissance flight measured
  a CP of 899 mb at 21/2309 UTC.  However, the surface wind was 32 kts,
  indicating that the dropsonde had not hit the center of the eye.  Any
  CP measurement with the surface wind less than 10 kts is usually
  considered valid, but the general rule of thumb is to decrease the CP
  by 1 mb for every 10 kts of wind above that value.  Hence, Rita's minimum
  pressure was estimated at 897 mb--at the time the third lowest ever
  measured in an Atlantic hurricane.  (As noted earlier, before the season
  was over this would be nudged to fourth lowest.)  Even though the highest
  700-mb FLW around this time was only 157 kts, with ODT values averaging
  around T7.3-T7.4 (149 to 152 kts), the intensity was bumped up to
  150 kts.   At the time of its peak intensity Hurricane Rita was centered
  approximately 500 nm east-southeast of Galveston, moving west at 8 kts.
  Hurricane force winds extended outward from the center 60 nm in the
  eastern quadrants while gales covered a zone 300 nm in diameter.

     Both Katrina and Rita intensified into strong Category 5 hurricanes
  while nearing and passing over the Loop Current, a region of high oceanic
  heat content with SSTs of 30-31 C.  In the case of Rita, the upper-level
  outflow pattern was just about perfect with a poleward outflow channel
  converging into an upper-level LOW northeast of the Lesser Antilles,
  and equatorward outflow channel converging into an upper-level LOW over
  the Bay of Campeche, and a third weak outflow channel developing to
  the northwest.   Further intensification was considered a possibility
  during the next 12 hours or so while Rita would still be located
  over the Loop Current unless inhibited by an eyewall replacement cycle.
  A reconnaissance plane around 22/0600 UTC found that the CP had remained
  near the 897-mb minimum with the peak FLW being 165 kts in the northeast
  eyewall, which correlates with a 150-kt surface MSW.  However, by late
  morning of the 22nd the CP had risen to 915 mb and the winds were brought
  down to 145 kts.  The dangerous hurricane by this time had turned to
  the anticipated west-northwesterly track toward the upper Texas coast.
  A hurricane warning was issued at 1500 UTC for the coast from Port
  O'Connor, Texas, to Morgan City, Louisiana.

     Extremely intense hurricanes rarely maintain their peak intensity for
  very long, and Rita was no exception.   The MSW was lowered to 130 kts
  at 22/1800 UTC, making Rita a Category 4 hurricane once more, and the
  cyclone continued to slowly weaken as it left the "bath water" of the
  Gulf Loop Current and moved further west-northwestward into a less
  optimum environment.  Initial landfall forecasts called for the hurricane
  to move inland near the Galveston-Houston area, and thousands of
  residents evacuated, causing massive traffic jams on the freeways.
  Fortunately, however, Rita's course shifted ever so slightly more to the
  northwest, taking aim on the Texas-Louisiana border, thus averting the
  specter of yet another major U. S. metropolitan area being devastated
  by a hurricane.  The central pressure continued to slowly rise on the
  23rd, reaching 931 mb around midday.  The 23/1800 UTC intermediate
  advisory reduced the MSW to 110 kts, making Rita an upper-end Category 3
  hurricane.  The storm was large, however.  During the morning a dropsonde
  released by a reconnaissance aircraft measured a 56-kt surface wind
  about 120 nm west of the eye.  Hurricane-force winds now covered an area
  about 120 nm in diameter.

     The eye of large, severe Hurricane Rita moved onshore near Sabine Pass
  around 0900 UTC on 24 September with the MSW estimated at 105 kts and
  with a CP of 937 mb.    Once inland Rita predictably began to weaken
  rapidly.  The cyclone was downgraded to a 55-kt tropical storm at 1800
  UTC while passing between Shreveport, Louisiana, and Lufkin, Texas.
  Following landfall, Rita's track became northerly, then began to bend
  toward the north-northeast.  NHC issued their final advisory, downgrading
  Rita to a tropical depression at 0300 UTC on 25 September with the center
  located about 65 km north of Shreveport.  HPC continued to track the
  weakening cyclone as it moved up the Mississippi River valley and then
  across Illinois into Indiana.  The final HPC advisory at 0900 UTC on the
  26th placed Rita's remnants about 130 km north-northwest of Indianapolis,
  Indiana.  The system was forecast to be absorbed by a frontal wave within
  a few hours.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Rita may be found at the
  following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/atlantic/BT-IMAGES/2005-18L-RITA.gif>


  C. Meteorological Observations
  ------------------------------

     Around 23/2000 UTC an elevated station at Marsh Island, Louisiana,
  reported sustained winds of 51 kts with gusts to 68 kts.  During the
  late afternoon of the 23rd, Galveston, Texas, reported winds of 32 kts
  with gusts to 47 kts.  Shortly before 0500 UTC on 24 September an AWS
  at Sea Rim State Park, Texas, reported sustained winds of 61 kts with a
  peak gust of 72 kts, and an AWS at Calcasieu Pass, Louisiana, reported
  a gust of 85 kts.  During the succeeding hour this same station reported
  sustained winds of hurricane force with a gust to 97 kts.  Shortly before
  24/0700 UTC the AWS at Sea Rim State Park reported sustained winds of
  68 kts gusting to 88 kts.   Between 0800 and 0900 UTC an instrumented
  tower in Port Arthur, Texas, run by the Florida Coastal Monitoring
  Program, reported sustained winds of 79 kts with a gust of 101 kts.
  Following landfall, around 1200 UTC, a ham radio report indicated that
  Jasper, Texas, had recently measured a wind gust of 74 kts.

     While Rita was passing just south of the Florida Keys as it was
  intensifying to hurricane intensity, Sombrero Key reported sustained
  winds of 51 kts with gusts to 63 kts around 20/1500 UTC.  During the
  afternoon of the 20th Sand Key reported sustained winds of 52 kts with
  a gust of 80 kts, while Varadero, Cuba, measured gusts to 52 kts as Rita
  passed to the north.  During the hour preceding 21/0000 UTC a gust to
  61 kts was reported at Key West International Airport while Dry Tortugas
  reported sustained winds of 46 kts, gusting to 54 kts.  Winds continued
  to increase over Dry Tortugas during the succeeding hours.  The 21/0600
  UTC intermediate advisory noted that the AWS there had reported winds
  of 57 kts with a gust to 76 kts before contact with the station was lost.

     A graphic prepared by David Roth of the Hydrometeorological Prediction
  Center depicting rainfall amounts recorded in association with Hurricane
  Rita may be found at the following link:

     http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/rita2005.html>


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     As Rita passed south of the Florida Keys it downed trees and produced
  storm tides of up to 1.5 meters in portions of the island chain, flooding
  portions of U. S. Highway 1 and many other streets, as well as several
  homes and businesses.

     Rita was very destructive to southwestern Louisiana and southeastern
  Texas.  Storm surge flooding and wind damage were responsible for damage
  estimated in excess of $9 billion.  Many small communities south of
  Lake Charles, Louisiana, were essentially wiped out.  There were six
  fatalities attributed to Hurricane Rita.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for September:  2 tropical storms
                           2 hurricanes
                           2 intense hurricanes


                        Sources of Information
                        ----------------------

     Most of the information presented below was obtained from the
  various tropical cyclone products issued by the Tropical Prediction
  Center/National Hurricane Center (TPC/NHC) in Miami, Florida (or the
  Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) in Honolulu, Hawaii, for
  locations west of longitude 140W):  discussions, public advisories,
  forecast/advisories, tropical weather outlooks, special tropical
  disturbance statements, etc.  Some additional information may have
  been gleaned from the monthly summaries prepared by the hurricane
  specialists and available on TPC/NHC's website.  All references to
  sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period unless otherwise
  noted.


             Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for September
             -------------------------------------------------

     The Northeast Pacific basin came very much alive during September.
  No fewer than six tropical storms developed with four reaching hurricane
  intensity.  Of the four hurricanes, two became major hurricanes--Jova
  in the Central North Pacific and Kenneth east of 140W.  The September
  averages over the period 1971-2004 are 3.5 NS, 2.2 H, and 1.1 IH with
  an average NTC of 25%.  The NTC generated by the September, 2005, storms
  was 49% (this includes a slight amount of NTC generated by Otis during
  the first few days of October).  None of the cyclones made landfall,
  either in Mexico or Hawaii.  The remnants of Jova and Kenneth contributed
  to above-normal rainfall in Hawaii, and late in the month Hurricane Otis
  posed a threat to the southern Baja California Peninsula, but the storm
  eventually weakened to a depression and remained offshore.

     Reports follow on the cyclones.  The reports on Jova, Kenneth, Lidia
  and Max were written by Kevin Boyle.  A special thanks to Kevin for
  his assistance.



                              HURRICANE JOVA
                                 (TC-10E)
                             12 - 25 September
                   -------------------------------------

    Hurricane Jova was the first of two quite long-lived hurricanes that
  co-existed in the Northeast Pacific Basin during the month of September.
  The pre-Jova disturbance was initially mentioned in NHC's Tropical
  Weather Outlook issued at 2231 UTC 8 September as a disorganized area of
  showers and thunderstorms located about 400 nm south-southwest of
  Acapulco, Mexico.  The disturbance gradually became better organized and
  developed into Tropical Depression 10E at 12/0300 UTC while located
  about 550 nm south-southwest of Cabo San Lucas on the southern tip of
  the Baja California Peninsula.  Movement was predominantly towards the
  west, south of a deep-layer ridge.  The surrounding environment was not
  wholly conducive for intensification and, as a result, TD-10E was not
  upgraded to Tropical Storm Jova until 15/0300 UTC.  By this time the
  cyclone had moved several hundred miles to the west and was centred
  roughly 1150 nm southwest of Cabo San Lucas.  Tropical Storm Jova
  continued to intensify and became a 65-kt hurricane at 16/0900 UTC, the
  fifth of the season.  At this time, Jova was centred approximately
  1475 nm west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas.  Continuing on a west to 
  west-southwesterly track, Jova strengthened with the MSW reaching
  90 kts by 1500 UTC on 17 September.  This intensity was maintained for
  the next two days.

     Hurricane Jova turned sharply to a northwesterly track just prior to
  entering CPHC's area of responsibility at 0900 UTC 18 September.  The
  storm finally reached its maximum intensity of 100 kts, with an estimated
  minimum CP of 960 mb, at 19/2100 UTC.    Hurricane Jova maintained its 
  peak strength for the next 2 1/2 days but began to weaken markedly on
  22 September as it continued northwestward over progressively cooler SSTs
  and into an increasingly hostile wind shear environment.    Jova was
  downgraded to a tropical storm at 23/0300 UTC and by late on 23 September
  the strong mid and upper-level southwesterly winds had completely 
  exposed the LLCC.  Jova was downgraded to a tropical depression at
  24/0300 UTC as it changed to a more westerly heading and became
  increasingly influenced by the low-level easterly flow.  The final CPHC
  advisory was issued at 25/0300 UTC and Jova dissipated later that same
  day a little over 200 nm northeast of Honolulu, Hawaii.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Jova may be found at the
  following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/e_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-10E-JOVA.gif>

     There were no damages or casualties associated with Hurricane Jova.
  However, swells from the hurricane produced some high surf on the east-
  facing shores of the Hawaiian Islands.    Also, the remnants of Jova
  brought some locally heavy rainfall to parts of Oahu on 24 September.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)



                           HURRICANE KENNETH
                               (TC-11E)
                           14 - 30 September
                 -------------------------------------

  A. Storm History
  ----------------

     Hurricane Kenneth was the second of two long-lived tropical cyclones
  which existed simultaneously in the Northeast Pacific during September.
  Kenneth's progenitor was first mentioned as an area of disturbed weather
  in NHC's Tropical Weather Outlook issued at 0429 UTC 14 September.  At
  that time it was located about 850 nm south-southwest of the southern
  tip of Baja California and just a little over 435 nm east-southeast of 
  Tropical Depression 10E.  The disturbance quickly became better organized
  and became Tropical Depression 11E at 14/2100 UTC while located about
  800 nm southwest of Cabo San Lucas.  Strengthening continued, and TD-11E
  was upgraded to Tropical Storm Kenneth at 15/0900 UTC.  Moving west-
  northwestwards south of a mid-level ridge, Kenneth was upgraded to a
  65-kt hurricane at 0300 UTC 16 September while centred approximately
  875 nm southwest of Cabo San Lucas.

     Despite some northerly shear, Kenneth continued to strengthen with
  its winds reaching 110 kts at 17/0900 UTC.  This made Kenneth the first
  Northeast Pacific cyclone to reach Category 3 status this season, and
  the only major hurricane east of 140W.   (Jova's reign as a major
  hurricane occurred west of 140W in the Central North Pacific).  The  
  intensification trend leveled off slightly later on the 17th, but resumed
  on the 18th with Kenneth reaching its maximum intensity of 115 kts at 
  1500 UTC 18 September.  The CP at this time was estimated at 948 mb, and
  the Category 4 hurricane was centred approximately 1225 nm west-southwest
  of Cabo San Lucas.  Kenneth began to weaken on 19 September as a result
  of northerly shear emanating from Hurricane Jova's upper-level anti-
  cyclone.  In addition, Kenneth had drifted into a col, resulting in the
  storm becoming virtually stationary.   A very slow west-northwestward
  drift began on 20 September, and after further weakening occurred,
  Kenneth was downgraded to a 55-kt tropical storm at 20/2100 UTC.
  
     Tropical Storm Kenneth underwent several fluctuations in intensity
  over the next four days while drifting slowly westward.  However, the
  vertical wind shear that had been plaguing Kenneth lessened, and the
  tropical cyclone was able to reach hurricane strength for the second
  time at 0300 UTC 25 September. Kenneth was at that time positioned 
  very close to the 140th meridian about 925 nm east-southeast of Hilo,
  Hawaii, but due to its slow, erratic south-southwesterly movement, it
  took another day for the storm to finally cross into the CPHC's area of
  warning responsibility. 

     The first advisory issued by CPHC at 0900 UTC 26 September was the
  last classifying Kenneth as a hurricane, and the storm was downgraded
  to a tropical storm at 26/1500 UTC.  The system turned to a northwesterly
  course on 27 September before changing back to a west or west-
  northwesterly track on 29 September.  During this period, Kenneth
  weakened further and was downgraded to a tropical depression at 
  29/1500 UTC.  Kenneth dissipated just east of Big Island of Hawaii on
  30 September with CPHC issuing the final advisory at 2100 UTC.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Kenneth may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/e_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-11E-KENNETH.gif>

    The remnants of Kenneth brought some locally heavy rainfall to eastern
  parts of the Big Island.  The heavy rains spread to other parts of
  Hawaii on 1 October, notably the islands of Oahu and Kauai.  There were
  no reports of damages or casualties related to Hurricane Kenneth. 
 

  B. Hawaiian Rainfall Report
  ---------------------------

     The information below was extracted from the following link:

     http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/hydro/pages/oct05sum.html>

     The first significant heavy rain event of the month was a 
  continuation of heavy rains that began on 30 September resulting from
  the low-level remnant of Hurricane Kenneth passing beneath a strong
  upper-level low pressure system.  Very intense rains fell over portions
  of the Koolau Range on Oahu during the night of 1 October, causing flash
  flooding on Kaukonahua Stream and the overflow of Lake Wilson at Wahiawa
  Dam.  Sufficient water came over the spillway to force the evacuation of
  Otake Camp in Waialua.  The heavy rains shifted southeastward and focused
  on Nuuanu and Kalihi Valleys, producing 6 to 12 inches of flowing water
  on Pali Highway and a few reports of homes flooded by heavy runoff.
  Damage estimates from the flooding were not available.   Notable Oahu
  rain totals included just over 7 inches at Mililani and Waiawa and
  10.25 inches at Nuuanu.  At one point the Nuuanu gauge recorded
  1.6 inches in 15 minutes and 4.11 inches in one hour.  Thunderstorms
  over eastern and central Kauai also produced very heavy rains during the
  night of 1 October with a peak 6-hour total of 6.17 inches recorded at
  Mount Waialeale.  Flash flooding occurred on Hanalei River which forced
  the closure of Kuhio Highway at the Hanalei Bridge.  Rapid water level
  rises also occurred on the Wailua River and the Hanapepe River, though no
  significant damages were reported along these waterways.   (Note: To
  convert rainfall amounts in inches to millimetres, multiply by 25.4.)
  
  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)



                         TROPICAL STORM LIDIA
                               (TC-12E)
                           17 - 19 September
               ----------------------------------------

                                  AND 

                             HURRICANE MAX
                                (TC-13E)
                           18 - 22 September
                 -------------------------------------

  A. Tropical Storm Lidia
  -----------------------

     Tropical Storm Lidia formed from an area of disturbed weather located
  approximately 750 nm south of Baja California on 16 September.  The
  disturbance became better organized and the first advisory package was
  issued on Tropical Depression 12E at 1500 UTC 17 September, placing 
  the centre about 700 nm south-southwest of Cabo San Lucas.   The system
  was upgraded to Tropical Storm Lidia at 17/2100 UTC, but because Lidia
  formed in close proximity to the larger pre-Max disturbance located at
  that time roughly 400 nm to the northeast, further development was never
  deemed likely.  A maximum intensity of 40-kt was briefly attained at
  18/1500 UTC before Tropical Storm Lidia began to weaken.  The tropical
  cyclone was downgraded to a tropical depression at 18/2100 UTC, and Lidia
  had been incorporated into the circulation of Tropical Storm Max by early
  on 19 September.


  B. Hurricane Max
  ----------------

     Hurricane Max emanated from the large tropical disturbance located a
  few hundred miles to the northeast of the much smaller circulation of
  Tropical Storm Lidia.  TPC/NHC issued a special advisory on Tropical
  Depression 13E at 1800 UTC 18 September, locating the centre
  approximately 525 nm south-southwest of Cabo San Lucas, and upgraded the
  system to Tropical Storm Max three hours later.  The tropical cyclone
  initially moved towards the west-northwest before turning to a north-
  westerly heading.  After absorbing Tropical Storm Lidia early on
  19 September, Max strengthened and became a hurricane at 20/0300 UTC,
  peaking at 70 kts at 20/1500 UTC while located approximately 550 nm 
  west-southwest of the southern tip of the Baja.  However, its north-
  westward track southwest of a large HIGH centred near Texas soon brought
  the tropical cyclone over progressively cooler SSTs, and Max was down-
  graded to a tropical storm at 21/0900 UTC.   As steering currents 
  slackened, the system slowed and turned westward.  Max ceased to exist
  as a tropical cyclone at 22/1500 UTC after NHC downgraded it to tropical
  depression intensity.  The final TPC/NHC advisory, issued at this time,
  placed the remnant LOW about 700 nm west of Cabo San Lucas.

     Graphics depicting the tracks of Tropical Storm Lidia and Hurricane
  Max may be found at the following links:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/e_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-12E-LIDIA.gif>
 
     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/e_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-13E-MAX.gif>

     There were no damages or casualties reported from either Tropical
  Storm Lidia or Hurricane Max.
  
  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)



                           TROPICAL STORM NORMA
                                 (TC-14E)
                             23 - 27 September
                 ----------------------------------------

     The origins of the fifth tropical storm of the great September out-
  break can be traced to an area of disturbed weather which formed on
  19 September several hundred miles south of Acapulco, Mexico.  Conditions
  were not particularly favorable for development initially but were fore-
  cast to improve as the system moved west-northwestward over the next
  few days.   By early on the 22nd convective activity had become better
  organized and a tropical depression appeared to be forming.  A special
  advisory package was issued at 23/0500 UTC, upgrading the disturbance
  to Tropical Depression 14E.  The system was then located about 350 nm
  southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico, moving northwestward at about 7 kts.
  A large burst of convection had developed near and to the west of the
  tight LLCC, and Data-T numbers using a shear pattern were at least
  T2.5.  The depression continued to become better organized and was
  upgraded to Tropical Storm Norma at 0900 UTC.

     A large mid-level HIGH centered over Texas provided the steering for
  Norma throughout its lifetime.     Norma struggled with persistent
  easterly shear and was unable to attain hurricane intensity as had its
  predecessor, Hurricane Max.  The cyclone intensified slowly and reached
  its peak intensity of 55 kts at 1800 UTC on 24 September while centered
  approximately 400 nm slightly west of due south of the southern tip of
  the Baja California Peninsula.  Banding had improved and the LLCC was
  estimated to be closer to the middle of the cold convective cloud mass.
  Dvorak ratings from both TAFB and SAB had also increased to T3.5--55 kts.
  However, six hours later the easterly shear had resulted in a decrease
  in Norma's organization and the MSW was reduced to 50 kts.  The slow
  decline in intensity continued as Norma passed about midway between
  Clarion Island and Socorro Island early on the 26th.   Norma was down-
  graded to a tropical depression at 26/2100 UTC, and the final advisory
  was issued at 0600 UTC on 27 September, placing the remnant LOW's center
  about 350 nm west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Storm Norma may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/e_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-14E-NORMA.gif>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Storm Norma.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                              HURRICANE OTIS
                                 (TC-15E)
                         28 September - 3 October
               --------------------------------------------

     The final tropical cyclone of September, and the final named storm of
  the 2005 Eastern North Pacific season, had its origins within an area of
  low pressure on 24 September which was producing showers and thunder-
  storms along the Mexican coast from Acapulco northwestward to Manzanillo
  and adjacent Pacific waters.  No imminent tropical cyclone formation was
  expected due to the close proximity to land, but locally heavy rainfall
  was considered a possibility in the nearby mountainous areas.  The
  disturbance moved very slowly westward over the next few days, and in
  addition to the inhibiting influence of the Mexican landmass, upper-level
  winds were strong and unfavorable for tropical cyclone development.  By
  the morning of the 27th, however, the system was showing signs of
  increased organization and was beginning to pull away from the coast to
  the south-southeast of Manzanillo.  (Note:  According to TPC/NHC's
  end-of-season summary, the pre-Otis disturbance was related to a tropical
  wave which had left the coast of Africa on 9 September and may have been
  the same wave which spawned Atlantic Hurricane Philippe.)

     Organization had improved enough by early morning of 28 September that
  advisories were begun on Tropical Depression 15E, located about 140 nm
  south-southwest of Manzanillo.   The depression gradually became better
  organized while moving slowly westward, and was upgraded to Tropical
  Storm Otis at 29/0900 UTC while located approximately 200 nm southwest
  of Manzanillo.  A QuikScat pass at 29/0130 UTC had supported 30 kts with
  a couple of uncertain 35-kt vectors in convection west of the center.
  There had subsequently been an increase in deep convection over the
  center, and the 0600 UTC classifications from TAFB and SAB were T2.5/2.5.
  Shortly after being upgraded, Otis began to move on a northwesterly track
  around the southwestern periphery of a large mid-level ridge located over
  northern Mexico.

     Otis gradually intensified and was upgraded to a hurricane at 0900 UTC
  on 30 September while located roughly 135 nm south-southwest of Cabo San
  Lucas on the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula.  The upgrade
  was based on objective and subjective Dvorak ratings of T4.0 as well as
  the appearance of a ragged eye in infrared and microwave imagery.  Otis
  reached its peak intensity of 90 kts at 0900 UTC on 1 October while
  centered about 125 nm west-southwest of Cabo San Lucas.  By this time
  steering currents had become weak and Otis was drifting slowly northwest-
  ward.  For a few days the track forecasts consistently recurved Otis and
  carried it inland across the western Baja California Peninsula, but this
  never materialized.   The storm drifted erratically for a couple of days
  but eventually a north-northwesterly motion set in which carried the
  slowly weakening cyclone parallel to the western Baja coastline.

     Following its peak intensity early on 1 October, Hurricane Otis began
  to slowly weaken as it encountered cooler SSTs and increasing south-
  westerly shear.   Otis was downgraded to a 60-kt tropical storm at
  1200 UTC on 2 October while located about 105 nm west-southwest of Cabo
  San Lucas.   Otis continued to slowly spin down as it moved further
  northward into increasingly cooler waters, and the former hurricane was
  reduced to tropical depression status at 1500 UTC on 3 October.  The
  final TPC/NHC advisory on Otis was issued at 03/2100 UTC and placed the
  dissipating center about 160 nm southeast of Punta Eugenia on the western
  Baja California Peninsula coastline.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Otis may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/e_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-15E-OTIS.gif>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Hurricane
  Otis.  Due to the potential threat to Mexico, tropical storm and 
  hurricane warnings were issued for portions of the coastline by the
  Mexican government at various times during Otis' lifetime.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for September:  3 tropical depressions **
                           1 tropical storm
                           3 typhoons
                           1 super typhoon

  ** - these systems were treated as tropical depressions by various Asian
       warning agencies but not by JTWC


                         Sources of Information
                         ----------------------

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   In the companion
  tropical cyclone tracks file, I normally annotate track coordinates
  from some of the various Asian warning centers when their center
  positions differ from JTWC's by usually 40-50 nm or more.   All
  references to sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise noted.

     Michael V. Padua of Naga City in the Philippines, owner of the
  Typhoon 2000 website, normally sends me cyclone tracks based upon
  warnings issued by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the
  Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical & Astronomical Services
  Administration (PAGASA).  Also, Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City, China,
  sends data taken from synoptic observations around the Northwest
  Pacific basin.  A very special thanks to Michael and Chunliang for
  the assistance they so reliably provide.


              Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for September
              -------------------------------------------------

     Five named tropical storms and typhoons highlighted an active and,
  for China and Vietnam, destructive September.  Four of the five tropical
  storms reached typhoon intensity with one, Longwang, briefly reaching
  the super typhoon classification (per JTWC's analysis).  Typhoon Khanun
  pursued a steady northwestward track from deep in the Philippine Sea
  through the southern Ryukyus, eventually making landfall in China less
  than 200 nm south of Shanghai.  Khanun was responsible for 16 deaths in
  China with economic losses exceeding 9 billion yuan.  Tropical Storm
  Vicente formed in the South China Sea and moved westward into Vietnam.
  This weaker tropical cyclone was responsible for at least 20 fatalities
  in Vietnam and four in China.    Another South China Sea tropical
  depression in mid-September also moved westward into Vietnam and
  continued as an identifiable LLCC across southeastern Asia, emerging
  into the Bay of Bengal where it eventually strengthened into Cyclonic
  Storm Pyarr.  A report on Pyarr was included in Part 2 of the September
  summary.

     Typhoon Damrey formed just off northern Luzon and moved westward
  across the northern South China Sea, making devastating strikes in
  Hainan Island, China, and northern Vietnam.  The storm was blamed for
  29 deaths in China and over 100 in Vietnam.   Typhoon Saola was the one
  benign tropical cyclone of September--it recurved southeast of Japan and
  did not affect any land except for a few small Japanese islands.
  Finally, at the end of the month, Super Typhoon Longwang formed near
  the northern Marianas and followed a rather steady westerly course,
  striking central Taiwan and continuing across the Strait of Taiwan where
  it made a deadly and destructive landfall in Fujian Province, China.
  Longwang was responsible for 147 deaths in the province along with
  economic losses exceeding 7 billion yuan.   Reports on all the named
  cyclones, written by Kevin Boyle with additional data sent by Huang
  Chunliang, follow.

     In addition to the above-mentioned systems, two other systems were
  classified as tropical depressions by one or more of the Asian warning
  agencies.  One weak circulation well east of the southern Marianas on
  16 September was classified as a tropical depression by the Central
  Weather Bureau of Taiwan only.  This system's NRL Invest number was 92W.
  Another system (NRL Invest 90W) in the South China Sea near and just off
  the west-central Luzon coast was classified as a weak tropical depression
  by several TCWCs on 15-16 September, but not by JTWC or PAGASA.  The LLCC
  as well as associated convection was eventually absorbed into the
  circulation of Tropical Storm Vicente further west.   This depression,
  however, brought significant rainfall amounts to the Philippines.
  Following are some rainfall observations from the Philippines compiled
  and sent to the author by Huang Chunliang.    Only 24-hour amounts
  >= 100 mm are listed:

  CATANDUANES RADAR (WMO98447, 13.98N/124.32E)    150.2 mm [14/00-15/00Z]
  CATBALOGAN (WMO98548, 11.78N/124.88E)           130.0 mm [14/00-15/00Z]
  CASIGURAN (WMO98336, 16.28N/122.12E)            132.0 mm [15/00-16/00Z]
  ROMBLON (WMO98536, 12.58N/122.27E)              102.9 mm [15/00-16/00Z]
  BALER RADAR (WMO98334, 15.75N/121.63E)          139.5 mm [16/00-17/00Z]
  INFANTA (WMO98434, 14.75N/121.65E)              122.8 mm [16/00-17/00Z]

     Michael Padua of Naga City, Philippines, also sent me some rainfall
  measurements he had taken with his weather station.   On 15 September
  local time (14/1600 - 15/1600 UTC) 167.9 mm of rain were recorded, and
  for 16 September (15/1600 - 16/1600 UTC) 32.5 mm were recorded, for a
  storm total of 200.4 mm.  (The coordinates of Naga City are 13.6N/
  123.2E.)



              ADDENDA to the August Tropical Cyclone Summary
              ----------------------------------------------

     Following are reports compiled and sent by Huang Chunliang detailing
  the effects of Tropical Storm Sanvu and Typhoon Talim on China.  They
  were unavailable at the time the August summary "went to press".


  A. Sanvu Report
  ---------------

  {Part I} Landfalls
  ==================

     According to the NMCC warnings, Severe Tropical Storm 0510 (Sanvu)
  passed over Nan'ao Island around 13/0330 UTC with a MSW of 30 m/s
  (60 kts) and a CP of 975 hPa, before making landfall over the mainland
  near Yanhong Town, Chenghai District, Shantou City, Guangdong Province,
  around 13/0445 UTC with a MSW of 28 m/s (55 kts) and a CP of 982 hPa.


  {Part II} Meteorological Obs from Guangdong and Fujian Provinces
  ================================================================

  1. Wind Obs
  -----------

     Winds of Beaufort Force 8 to 10, gusting to Force 11 to 12 were
  reported in eastern Guangdong and coastal Fujian.  Yun'ao Town, Nan'ao
  County, Shantou City, reported the highest gusts in Guangdong, topping
  36 m/s, while Dongshan County, Zhangzhou City, recorded the strongest
  gusts in Fujian, peaking at 35 m/s.

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 84-hr period ending at 15/1200 UTC, Liangshan Reservoir
  (located in Zhangpu County, Zhangzhou City) reported the highest
  rainfall amount in Fujian Province, accumulating to 632 mm.  Also,
  Chaoyang City (WMO59318), a sub-city of Shantou City, reported 439 mm
  during the same period----the highest value in Guangdong Province.

     The 1-hr extremum of 118 mm during the storm was reported by station
  Wufeng (located in Tong'an District, Xiamen City, Fujian Province).


  {Part III} Rainfall Obs from Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces
  ========================================================

     During the 24-hr period ending at 15/0000 UTC, rains > 100 mm were
  recorded in 6 counties/cities in Hunan Province with Yiyang City
  reporting the highest amount of 187 mm.

     During the 48-hr period ending at 15/0000 UTC, rains > 100 mm were
  recorded in 7 counties/cities in Jiangxi Province with Jinggangshan City
  reporting the highest amount of 144 mm.


  {Part IV} Daily Top-5 Rainfall Obs from Taiwan Province
  =======================================================

  [11/1600-12/1600Z]
  ------------------

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0T82          Hualien County      567.0 mm
  02         CWB C1S66          Taitung County      374.5 mm
  03         CWB C1T95          Hualien County      366.0 mm
  04         CWB C1T90          Hualien County      354.5 mm
  05         CWB C1T94          Hualien County      353.0 mm

  [12/1600-13/1600Z]
  ------------------

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0T82          Hualien County      203.0 mm
  02         CWB C1V19          Kaohsiung County    186.5 mm
  03         CWB C1Z02          Hualien County      179.5 mm
  04         CWB C1Z01          Hualien County      177.5 mm
  05         CWB C1T83          Hualien County      167.0 mm


  {Part V} Meteorological Obs from Hong Kong S.A.R
  ================================================

     http://www.weather.gov.hk/informtc/sanvu/sanvu.htm>


  {Part VI} Damage and Casualties
  ===============================

     STS Sanvu caused 4.06 billion yuan of direct economic losses in
  Fujian, Guangdong, Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces and was responsible for
  18 deaths as well as 11 persons missing in the provinces, where
  4,396,000 residents were affected by the storm.


  {Part VII} References
  =====================

     http://www.nmc.gov.cn>      
     http://ncc.cma.gov.cn>      
     http://www.grmc.gov.cn>     
     http://www.cwb.gov.tw>      
     http://www.weather.gov.hk>  


  B. Talim Report
  ---------------

  {Part I} Landfalls
  ==================

     According to the CWB warnings, the LOW-LEVEL CENTER of Moderate
  Typhoon 0513 (Talim) made landfall over Taiwan Island between Ilan and
  Hualien Counties around 31/2330 UTC with a MSW of 40 m/s (80 kts) and
  a CP of 955 hPa after making a small counter-clockwise loop, resembling
  the one drawn by its predecessor (Haitang), though much smaller this
  time, east of the island.  It should be noted that the earlier CWB
  warnings also indicated that the UPPER-LEVEL CENTER of the typhoon had
  already moved inland near Liwu River, Hualien County, around 31/1700 UTC
  when Talim was still a Severe Typhoon with a MSW of 51 m/s (100 kts)
  and a CP of 925 hPa.

     Another interesting profile is that the agency moved the typhoon
  rapidly westwards crossing Taiwan Island within 1 hour:  at 31/2300 UTC
  the low-level center was placed near 24.2N/121.8E (or about 30 km NE of
  Hualien), then at 01/0000 UTC, it was located near 24.2N/120.4E (or about
  30 km W of Taitung), their explanation being that a new sub-center became
  the dominant one off the western coast soon after the former center made
  landfall over the eastern coast. 

     On the other hand, according to the NMCC warnings, Typhoon 0513
  (Talim) made first landfall over Taiwan Island near Hualien around
  31/2200 UTC with a MSW of 45 m/s (90 kts) and a CP of 950 hPa.
  Traversing the island, the typhoon reemerged in the Taiwan Strait around
  01/0030 UTC.  Final landfall over the mainland near Pinghai Town, Putian
  City (to the south of Fuzhou City), Fujian Province, occurred around
  01/0630 UTC with a MSW of 35 kts (70 kts) and a CP of 970 hPa being
  indicated by the NMCC warnings.  Also, there has been another version
  concerning Talim's second landfall--the CWB of Taiwan stated that the
  typhoon did not make landfall until 01/0800 UTC, when Talim came ashore
  near the boundary of Fuzhou and Putian Cities.


  {Part II} Meteorological Obs from Taiwan Province
  =================================================

  1. Peak Sustained Wind & Gust Obs [Aug 31--Sep 1, LST]
  ------------------------------------------------------

     Only those stations that reported sustained winds of gale force or
  gusts of typhoon force are given:

                                         Peak SW             Peak Gust
  Station                          (mps/Local Date)     (mps/Local Date)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  An Bu      (WMO46691, Alt 827m)        ----/----           48.5/31st
  Taipei     (WMO46692/58968, Alt 9m)    14.5/ 1st           36.3/31st
  Chu-tzu-hu (WMO46693, Alt 608m)        ----/----           32.8/31st
  Keelung    (WMO46694, Alt 3m)          22.9/31st           49.3/ 1st
  Hualien    (WMO46763/59362, Alt 14m)   26.8/ 1st           44.2/ 1st
  Suao       (WMO46706, Alt 3m)          31.5/31st           48.4/31st
  Ilan       (WMO46708, Alt 7m)          23.9/31st           39.5/31st
  Penghu     (WMO46735, Alt 21m)         17.4/ 1st           30.4/ 1st
  Tainan     (WMO46741/59358, Alt 14m)   16.4/ 1st           33.0/ 1st
  Hengchun   (WMO46752, Alt 13m)         15.0/ 1st           32.7/ 1st
  Chenggong  (WMO46761, Alt 37m)         21.0/ 1st           33.9/ 1st
  Wuci       (WMO46777, Alt 5m)          31.1/ 1st           48.6/ 1st
  Dongshi    (WMO46730/59348, Alt 45m)   31.1/ 1st           40.0/ 1st
  Lanyu      (WMO46762/59567, Alt 325m)  34.7/31st           53.0/31st
  Kinmen     (WMO46711, Alt 36m)         19.3/ 1st           26.9/ 1st
  Mastsu     (WMO46799, Alt 92m)         23.1/ 1st           41.8/ 1st
 
  2. Daily Top-10 Rainfall Obs
  ----------------------------

  [30/1600-31/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0U71          Ilan County         454.0 mm
  02         CWB C0A56          Taipei County       373.5 mm
  03         CWB 21C07          Taoyuan County      346.0 mm
  04         CWB 21U11          Ilan County         315.0 mm
  05         CWB C0A57          Taipei County       304.0 mm
  06         CWB C1E72          Miaoli County       296.0 mm
  07         CWB 21D17          Hsinchu County      294.0 mm
  08         CWB 21D35          Hsinchu County      290.0 mm
  09         CWB C1E57          Miaoli County       279.5 mm
  10         CWB C0A54          Taipei County       274.0 mm

  [31/1600-01/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C1V30          Kaohsiung County    686.5 mm
  02         CWB C0R10          Pingtung County     604.0 mm
  03         CWB C1V23          Kaohsiung County    601.0 mm
  04         CWB C1V27          Kaohsiung County    578.5 mm
  05         CWB C1V24          Kaohsiung County    556.5 mm
  06         CWB C1M39          Chia-i County       546.0 mm
  07         CWB C1V21          Kaohsiung County    541.5 mm
  08         CWB C0M53          Chia-i County       537.5 mm
  09         CWB C0V25          Kaohsiung County    529.5 mm
  10         CWB C1V20          Kaohsiung County    518.5 mm


  {Part III} Meteorological Obs from Fujian Province
  ==================================================

  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     Highest gust report of the insular stations----44 m/s @ Beijiao,
  Lianjiang County, Fuzhou City.

     Highest gust report of the non-insular stations----38 m/s @ Changle
  City (a sub-city of Fuzhou City).

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 96-hr period ending at 04/0000 UTC, storm totals >= 200 mm
  were reported by 12 stations (including hydrological stations).

     During the 24-hr period ending at 02/0000 UTC, daily rainfalls
  >= 200 mm were reported by 5 counties/cities with Zherong County, Ningde
  City reporting the highest amount of 347 mm.

  3. Obs from Fuzhou City
  -----------------------

     Talim struck Fuzhou with the strongest winds that were associated with
  the city's four tropical cyclones (Typhoon Haitang, Severe Tropical Storm
  Sanvu, Typhoon Talim and Typhoon Longwang) during the 2005 season.
  Persistent strong winds, along with torrential rains, began to attack my
  city around the midnight prior to the first day of September (LST) and
  did not ease up until a whole day later.  Station WMO58847, which is
  located in the urban area, reported gusts topping 30 m/s, while the
  suburban stations recorded higher winds (see Section 1).  Also, the
  station (WMO58847) reported a peak daily rainfall amount of 168 mm on
  the 1st [01/0000-02/0000Z].

     According to the press reports, hundreds of flights were cancelled in
  Fuzhou Changle International Airport, while thousands of trees were
  uprooted in the urban area.  Three trucks were turned over by violent
  winds when steering through a bridge.   Besides, the typhoon was also
  responsible for the largest-scale power-off accidents in the city in
  recent years.


  {Part IV} Meteorological Obs from Zhejiang Province
  ===================================================

  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     Zhaoshandu, Rui'an City (a sub-city of Wenzhou City) reported the most
  significant gusts of the province, peaking at 36.7 m/s.

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 72-hr period ending at 03/0000Z, rains >=300 mm were
  reported by 15 stations (including hydrological stations) with Waiyang
  (located in Taishun County, Wenzhou City) reporting the highest amount
  of 604.8 mm.

  Extrema from Station Waiyang:
  -----------------------------

  24-hr rainfall: 510.5 mm [01/0300-02/0300Z]
  Daily rainfall: 488.9 mm [01/0000-02/0000Z]
  12-hr rainfall: 421.0 mm [01/0300-01/1500Z]
  06-hr rainfall: 267.0 mm [01/0700-01/1300Z]
  03-hr rainfall: 168.0 mm [01/0900-01/1200Z]
  01-hr rainfall:  75.6 mm [01/1100-01/1200Z]
  
  3. Hydrological Obs
 -------------------
 
     Two hydrological stations reported record-breaking water levels during
  the storm:

  Station    Peak Water Level      Former Record
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  Baiyan     54.45 m [01/1830Z]    52.47 m
  Daitou     19.78 m [01/1430Z]    19.19 m [associated with Typhoon 0505 
                                           (Haitang)]
 

  {Part V} Rainfall Obs from Other Provinces
  ==========================================

     3-day totals [01/0000-04/0000Z] (Only WMO stations that reported rains
  >= 300 mm listed):
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Lushan, Jiangxi Province (WMO58506, 29.58N 115.98E, Alt 1165m)  *934 mm
  Ruichang, Jiangxi Province (WMO58503, 29.68N 115.67E, Alt 23m)   427 mm
  Xingzi, Jiangxi Province (WMO58514, 29.45N 116.05E, Alt 36m)     381 mm
  Jing'an, Jiangxi Province (WMO58600, 28.87N 115.37E, Alt 80m)    323 mm
  Yongxiu, Jiangxi Province (WMO58509, 29.05N 115.82E, Alt 37m)    307 mm
  Yuexi, Anhui Province (WMO58317, 30.87N 116.37E, Alt 431m)       573 mm
  Huoshan, Anhui Province (WMO58314, 31.40N 116.32E, Alt 73m)      442 mm
  Jinzhai, Anhui Province (WMO58306, 31.68N 115.88E, Alt 94m)      428 mm
  Wuxue, Hubei Province (WMO58501, 29.85N 115.55E, Alt 20m)        328 mm

  Note (*): Lushan, Jiangxi Province reported a record-breaking 24-hr
  rainfall of 529 mm duing the period 01/1800-02/1800 UTC.


  {Part VI} Damage and Casualties
  ===============================

     Typhoon Talim caused severe damage in the provinces of Anhui,
  Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Jiangsu and Henan and was responsible
  for 135 deaths in the Chinese Mainland.  (Over 80 deaths were reported in
  Anhui Province along due to the severe flooding and landslides triggered
  by the torrential rains.)

        Population         Deaths  Farmland      Houses    Direct Economic
  Evacuated     Affected          Damaged (ha)  Toppled     Loss (yuan)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1,839,000     19,944,500   135   1290,000     115,800    16,400,000,000

     Preliminary statistics indicated that Typhoon Talim left 7 deaths and
  more than 200 people injured in Taiwan.  Agricultural losses in the
  province were estimated to be at least NT$ 1.4 billion.


  {Part VII} References (All in Chinese version)
  ==============================================

     http://www.nmc.gov.cn>   
     http://ncc.cma.gov.cn>   
     http://www.cwb.gov.tw>   
     http://www.fjqx.gov.cn>  
     http://www.zjwater.com>  



                            TYPHOON KHANUN
                       (TC-15W / TY 0515 / KIKO)
                           5 - 16 September
             ---------------------------------------------

  Khanun: contributed by Thailand, is a type of fruit (jackfruit)

  A. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     The disturbance that Typhoon Khanun stemmed from was first mentioned 
  in a TCFA issued by JTWC at 1500 UTC 5 September.  Remarks in this 
  statement included: "An area of convection near 8.4N/140.4E, 
  approximately 150 nm east-southeast of Yap, has persisted over the past 
  12 hours.  Animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery indicates that 
  deep convection has consolidated very near the low-level circulation 
  center.  An upper-level analysis shows good westward outflow and 
  moderate wind shear that is forecast to lessen."   The TCFA was quickly 
  followed by the first warning at 05/1800 UTC.  Tropical Depression 15W 
  continued to develop and was upgraded to a 35-kt tropical storm at 
  06/0000 UTC while passing 50 nm north of Yap.  The system remained 
  unnamed until 07/0000 UTC, the time at which JMA upgraded their 10-min 
  avg MSW to 35-kts and assigned the name Khanun.  (PAGASA had begun 
  using their internal name Kiko at 06/1800 UTC.)  On 5 September Tropical
  Depression 15W passed roughly 60 nm south of Ulithi Atoll where, during
  the 24 hours from 05/1200 through 06/1200 UTC, Falalop Island recorded
  105.4 mm of rain.  (This information from Huang Chunliang.)
  
     Khanun remained at tropical storm intensity on 7 September while 
  tracking predominantly towards the northwest along the southwestern 
  periphery of the low to mid-level steering ridge anchored southeast of 
  Japan.  The storm was upgraded to a 65-kt typhoon at 1200 UTC 8 September
  while located approximately 570 nm south-southeast of Okinawa.  Movement
  was mostly towards the north-northwest on 8 September before the cyclone
  turned northwestward the next day.  Meanwhile, Typhoon Khanun intensified
  and while doing so, passed through the southern Ryukyu Islands on
  10 September.  It reached its maximum intensity of 115 kts at 10/1800 UTC
  while centred approximately 225 nm west of Okinawa.   Turning north-
  northwestward once more, Khanun made landfall in China at 11/0600 UTC
  near Songmen, Zhejiang Province, or about 180 nm south of Shanghai.  JTWC
  issued the final warning at 11/1800 UTC, downgrading Khanun to a 60-kt
  tropical storm.  After lowering their MSW below typhoon strength at
  11/1800 UTC, JMA maintained tropical storm intensity until 13/0000 UTC
  when the last bulletin was released.  During that period, the weakening
  Khanun turned northward over eastern China, its centre passing west of
  Shanghai before recurving east-northeastward into the Yellow Sea.  The
  residual circulation crossed Korea on 13 September, moved across the
  Sea of Japan, and had re-entered the Pacific Ocean by 14/1200 UTC.  The
  by-now extratropical gale moved rapidly east-northeastward across the
  North Pacific, and the final reference to the system in JMA's High Seas
  Bulletins placed a 40-kt gale east of the Dateline near 50N/176W at
  1800 UTC on 16 September.

     The peak 10-min avg MSW estimated by any Asian warning agency was 
  100 kts by NMCC.  JMA, HKO and CWB all estimated the peak intensity
  of Typhoon Khanun at 85 kts, while PAGASA's highest MSW for Typhoon 
  Kiko while in their AOR was 80 kts.

     Graphics depicting the track of Typhoon Khanun/Kiko may be found at
  the following links:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/w_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-15W-KHANUN-OVER.gif>
     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/w_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-15W-KHANUN.gif>
  

  B. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     Typhoon Khanun was responsible for 14 deaths in eastern China.  Over 
  one million people were evacuated from coastal areas ahead of the 
  storm.  Khanun battered the cities of Wenzhou, Taizhou, Ningbo, and 
  Jinhua with strong winds and heavy rains, causing widespread damage. 
  Flooding was reported in Shanghai City, forcing more than 160,000 
  residents to evacuate the area.  More than 400 flights were cancelled 
  in Shanghai and Hongqiao Airports.  Around 20,000 homes were destroyed 
  while water conservancy facilities and cropland were damaged.  Total 
  economic losses are estimated at 6.9 billion yuan (850 million US 
  dollars).  (NOTE: Updated damage and casualty figures may be found
  in Section C.)
  
     Typhoon Khanun passed through the southern Ryukyu Islands on 
  10 September.  Polling for the Japanese General Election was delayed on 
  some of the islands until the weather had improved.  There were no
  reports of damages or casualties reported from any of the southern
  Ryukyu Islands. 


  C. Huang Chunliang Reports
  --------------------------

  (1) Japan
  ---------

     The information below is based upon data obtained from the following
  link:

     http://www.okinawa-jma.go.jp>

  {Part I} Landfall
  =================

     According to the JMA warnings, Very Severe Typhoon 0515 (Khanun)
  passed over Tarama Island, Okinawa Prefecture, around 10/0930 UTC with
  a MSW of 85 kts and a CP of 945 hPa.  Tarama (JMA93061, 24.67N/124.70E,
  Alt 16m) reported a peak sustained wind of 39 m/s at 10/0910 UTC.


  {Part II} WMO Station Obs
  =========================

  Station          Min SLP (hPa)     Peak SW (m/s)    Peak Gust (m/s)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  Miyakojima     978.2 [10/0828Z]   24.6 [10/0900Z]   47.5 [10/0858Z]
  Ishigakijima   986.6 [10/0934Z]   19.7 [10/1450Z]   32.9 [10/0828Z]
  Iriomotejima   990.2 [10/1108Z]   23.5 [10/1340Z]   32.6 [10/1326Z]
  Yonagunijima   996.1 [10/1350Z]   17.8 [10/0850Z]   28.6 [10/1526Z]


  Station             Peak Daily Rainfall (mm)
  --------------------------------------------
  Miyakojima         102.0  [09/1500-10/1500Z]
  Ishigakijima        89.5  [09/1500-10/1500Z]
  Iriomotejima        68.5  [09/1500-10/1500Z]
  Yonagunijima        43.0  [10/1500-11/1500Z]

  Note:  Miyakojima -    WMO47927, 24.79N/125.28E, Alt 40 m
         Ishigakijima -  WMO47918, 24.34N/124.16E, Alt  6 m
         Iriomotejima -  WMO47917, 24.39N/123.75E, Alt  9 m
         Yonagunijima -  WMO47912, 24.47N/123.01E, Alt 30 m


  (2) China
  ---------

  {Part I} Landfall
  =================

     According to the NMCC warnings, Typhoon 0515 (Khanun), the strongest
  tropical cyclone to make landfall in Zhejiang Province since Typhoon
  Wanda (1956), moved inland near Jinqing Town (28.4N/121.6E), Luqiao
  District, Taizhou City, around 11/0650 UTC with a MSW of 50 m/s (100 kts)
  and a CP of 945 hPa.  The weakening tropical cyclone then passed through
  Zhejiang and Jiangsu Provinces successively before the center of Tropical
  Storm Khanun reemerged in the Yellow Sea from Yanwei Harbor, Lianyungang
  City, Jiangsu Province, around 12/1430 UTC.  Finally, NMCC declared
  Khanun extratropical before the storm traversed the Korea Peninsula on
  the 13th..


  {Part II} Daily Top-5 Rainfall Obs from Taiwan Province
  =======================================================

  [10/1600-11/1600Z]
  ------------------

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB L1A83          Taipei County       111.5 mm
  02         CWB L1A80          Taipei County       111.0 mm
  03         CWB C0A54          Taipei County       105.5 mm
  04         WMO 46693          Taipei City         104.5 mm
  05         CWB 01A42          Taipei City         103.0 mm


  {Part III} Meteorological Obs from Zhejiang Province
  ====================================================

  1. Wind Obs
  -----------

     Dachen Dao (WMO58666, 28.45N/121.90E, Alt 84m) reported a record-
  breaking peak gust of 59.5 m/s on the 11th, the former record being
  58.7 m/s which was associated with Typhoon 0414 (Rananim) in August,
  2004. The hourly sustained winds recorded by the station peaked at
  11/0600 UTC, reaching 45 m/s.

     Other 40+ m/s peak gust reports from the province included 49.7 m/s
  (Hepu, Xiangshan County), 47.2 m/s (Shipu, Xiangshan County), 44.7 m/s
  (Shitang, Wenling City), 43.3 m/s (Damutu, Xiangshan County).

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 36-hr period ending at 11/2100 UTC, storm totals > 400 mm
  were reported by 7 stations (including hydrological stations) with 
  Xiaozhilingjiao, Linhai City (a sub-city of Taizhou City), reporting the 
  highest amount of 464.5 mm.

  Extrema from Station Xiaozhilingjiao:

  24-hr rainfall: 464.0 mm [10/1300-11/1300Z]
  12-hr rainfall: 431.0 mm [11/0100-11/1300Z]
  06-hr rainfall: 339.0 mm [11/0300-11/0900Z]
  03-hr rainfall: 214.5 mm [11/0600-11/0900Z]
  01-hr rainfall: 138.0 mm [11/0800-11/0900Z]


  {Part IV} Rainfall Obs from Other Provinces/Municipalities
  ==========================================================

  1. Shanghai Municipality
  ------------------------

     During the 24-hr period ending at 12/0000 UTC, Caojing, Jinshan
  District, reported the highest storm total of 169.8 mm.

  2. Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces
  ---------------------------------

     24-hr rainfall obs (0nly WMO stations that reported rains > = 100 mm
  listed)
  =======================================================================

  Changshu, Jiangsu Province              110 mm [10/2100-11/2100Z]
    (WMO58352, 31.65N/120.73E, Alt 5m)       
  Kunshan, Jiangsu Province               108 mm [10/2100-11/2100Z]
    (WMO58356, 31.42N/120.95E, Alt 9m)        
  Taicang, Jiangsu Province               101 mm [10/2100-11/2100Z]
    (WMO58377, 31.47N/121.10E, Alt 6m)        
  Sheyang, Jiangsu Province               113 mm [11/2100-12/2100Z]
    (WMO58150, 33.77N/120.25E, Alt 7m)        
  Qingdao, Shandong Province              107 mm [11/2100-12/2100Z]
    (WMO54857, 36.07N/120.33E, Alt 77m)      


  {Part V} Damage and Casualties
  ==============================

     Typhoon Khanun was responsible for 16 deaths with another 9 people
  missing in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces plus Shanghai
  Municipality.  Direct economic losses were estimated to have been
  over 9 billion yuan.
 
  Population  Population            Farmland      Houses    Direct Economic
  Evacuated   Affected     Deaths  Damaged (ha)   Toppled    Losses (yuan)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1,299,000   13,190,000     16      929,000      24,000    9,910,000,000


  {Part VI} References (All in Chinese version)
  =============================================

     http://www.nmc.gov.cn>           
     http://ncc.cma.gov.cn>           
     http://www.cwb.gov.tw>           
     http://www.zjwater.com>          
     http://www.shanghaiwater.gov.cn> 

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang)



                         TROPICAL STORM VICENTE
                           (TC-16W / TS 0516)
                            15 - 19 September
               ------------------------------------------

  Vicente: submitted by the United States, is a Chamorro male name (also
           the Spanish form of the name Vincent)

  A. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     The first reference to the disturbance that spawned Tropical Storm 
  Vicente was included in JTWC's STWO issued at 0230 UTC 15 September.  
  An area of convection had persisted approximately 225 nm west of 
  Manila, Philippines.  Animated multi-spectral imagery and a 14/2229 UTC 
  AMSU-B microwave pass revealed that most of the deep convection was 
  located on the periphery of a broad, organizing LLCC.  An upper-level 
  analysis indicated an area of moderate vertical wind shear, favourable 
  divergence aloft, and consolidating 850-mb vorticity.  A TCFA was 
  released at 15/2030 UTC after the deep convection increased to the 
  southwest of the partially-exposed centre.  The first warning followed 
  at 16/0000 UTC, locating Tropical Depression 16W approximately 200 nm 
  east of Nha Trang, Vietnam.

     Tropical Depression 16W traced a large, cyclonic loop on 16 
  September whilst interacting with a tropical disturbance located to the 
  northeast. It was upgraded to a 35-kt tropical storm by JMA at 16/1200 
  UTC and named Vicente.  JTWC followed suit and upgraded Vicente to a 
  tropical storm at 17/0000 UTC.  Tropical Storm Vicente completed its 
  erratic loop-de-loop movement on 17 September, accelerating onto a west 
  to west-northwesterly track and passing south of Hainan Island, China, 
  later that same day.  After absorbing the disturbance to the east, 
  Vicente became the dominant circulation in the South China Sea, 
  reaching a peak intensity of 40 kts at 18/0000 UTC.  The system finally 
  came ashore just north of Hue, Vietnam, at around 18/0600 UTC.  JTWC 
  downgraded Vicente to a tropical depression on their last warning, 
  issued at 18/0600 UTC.  JMA maintained tropical storm intensity until 
  19/0000 UTC when that agency released their final bulletin.  By then, 
  Vicente was heading into Thailand and dissipating.  
  
     JMA, NMCC, CWB of Taiwan, and TMD of Thailand, all estimated a maximum
  intensity of 45 kts.  HKO estimated a peak strength of 40 kts.  PAGASA 
  did not issue warnings on this system as it formed to the west of their 
  AOR.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Storm Vicente may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/w_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-16W-VICENTE.gif>


  B. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     According to press reports, at least twenty people lost their lives 
  in Vietnam as a result of Tropical Storm Vicente. 

     The pressure gradient between Vicente and a ridge of high pressure 
  over southeastern China brought a strong easterly air stream to the 
  coastal areas of Guangdong, causing rough seas.  A swimmer was reported 
  drowned there and another casualty occurred in rough seas at Sai Kung, 
  Hong Kong.  A Chinese ship struck a reef between Shangchuan and 
  Xiachuan Islands.  Fortunately, all seventeen crew members were saved.


  C. Huang Chunliang Report
  -------------------------

  (1) China
  ---------

  Brief Report from Hainan Province
  =================================

     During the 48-hr period ending at 19/0000 UTC, storm totals >= 100 mm
  were reported by 8 counties/cities with Wuzhishan City (WMO59941, 18.77N/
  109.52E, Alt 329m) reporting the highest amount of 393 mm.

     Xisha Dao (WMO59981, 16.83N/112.33E, Alt 5m) reported a peak gust of
  30 m/s at 18/0132 UTC.

     Preliminary statistics on 20 September indicated that the storm had
  caused at least 47 million yuan of direct economic losses in Hainan and
  was responsible for 2 deaths as well as 9 missing in the province.


  (2) Vietnam and Thailand
  ------------------------

     In Vietnam, station Vinh (18.67N/105.68E) recorded 196.7 mm of
  rainfall between 17/1200 and 18/1200 UTC.

     In Thailand, station Chiang Mai (18.78N/98.98E) recorded 103.0 mm
  of rainfall between 18/1800 and 19/1800 UTC.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with contributions by Huang Chunliang)



                             TYPHOON SAOLA
                          (TC-18W / TY 0517)
                           19 - 28 September
                --------------------------------------

  Saola:  contributed by Vietnam, is a rare type of forest-dwelling ox
          recently found in the western part of Hatinh Province (Central
          Vietnam) and is a protected species  (Editor's Note:  For more
          information on the word "saola", please see Section D.)

  A. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     At 0100 UTC 20 September a TCFA was issued for a potential candidate 
  for a tropical cyclone.  Remarks included: "An area of convection near 
  20.9N/152.5E, approximately 515 nm northeast of Saipan, has persisted 
  over the last 12 hours.  Recent multi-spectral satellite imagery shows 
  consolidating convection around a partially-exposed low-level 
  circulation.  An upper-level LOW to the northwest of the system is 
  enhancing convection on the northern periphery of the system.  An upper- 
  air analysis indicates the system is in a favorable environment for 
  development with both equatorward and eastward outflow channels and low 
  vertical wind shear."  Drifting slowly west-northwestwards, the 
  disturbance became Tropical Depression 18W at 20/1200 UTC, the time 
  that JTWC issued the first warning.  JTWC upgraded TD-18W to a 35-kt 
  tropical storm at 21/0000 UTC, six hours after JMA had raised their MSW 
  to 35-kts and assigned the name Saola. 
  
     Tropical Storm Saola steadily intensified on 21 September while 
  moving on a northwestward or west-northwestward heading.  It was 
  upgraded to a 70-kt typhoon at 0000 UTC 22 September while centred 
  approximately 260 nm east of Iwo Jima.  Continuing west-northwestwards 
  along the southwestern periphery of a subtropical ridge located to the 
  northeast, Typhoon Saola reached an intensity of 90 kts and maintained 
  this strength for over 24 hours, finally peaking at 100 kts at 24/0600 
  UTC while turning northwards through a break in the ridge.   After 
  completing recurvature, Typhoon Saola accelerated northeastwards into 
  the mid-latitude baroclinic zone and began to steadily weaken.  After 
  making its closest approach to Tokyo, Japan, passing approximately 
  155 nm to the south-southeast at 25/0000 UTC, Saola was downgraded to 
  a tropical storm at 25/1800 UTC.  The system was declared extratropical 
  at 26/0000 UTC when JTWC issued the final warning.  JMA maintained 
  typhoon intensity until 26/0600 UTC, at which time Saola was downgraded 
  to a 55-kt tropical storm.  Six hours later the former typhoon was 
  declared extratropical.  The remnants of Saola raced rapidly eastward 
  across the North Pacific, and by 28/0000 UTC consisted of a 35-kt gale 
  well east of the Dateline.

     NMCC estimated a peak intensity of 90 kts while JMA and the CWB of 
  Taiwan estimated a maximum intensity of 80 kts.  The lowest CP estimated 
  by JMA was 950 mb.

     A graphic depicting the track of Typhoon Saola may be found at the
  following link:
  
     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/w_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-18W-SAOLA.gif>


  B. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     Although Typhoon Saola brought heavy rains and strong winds to much 
  of southeastern Japan and the offshore islands of Izu Shoto, there were 
  no reports of damages or casualties.


  C. Huang Chunliang Report from Japan
  ------------------------------------

  {Part I} Wind Obs
  =================

  Station           Peak SW (m/s)     Peak Gust (m/s)
  ---------------------------------------------------
  Hachijojima       26.8 [24/2010Z]   52.7 [24/1852Z]
  Miyakejima        23.6 [24/2230Z]   36.2 [25/0022Z]
  Choshi            25.9 [25/0510Z]   36.2 [25/0909Z]
  Chichijima        14.1 [--------]   38.0 [22/1805Z]


  Station Information:
  --------------------

  Station 
  ---------------------------------------------------
  Hachijojima   (WMO47678, 33.10N/139.78E, Alt 79m)  
  Miyakejima    (WMO47677, 34.12N/139.52E, Alt 36m)   
  Choshi        (WMO47648, 35.74N/140.86E, Alt 20 m)      
  Chichijima    (WMO47971, 27.09N/142.19E, Alt 3m)    


  {Part II} Rainfall Obs
  ======================

  Station                                              Storm Total (mm)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Hachijojima (WMO47678,33.10N/139.78E,Alt 79m)    249.5 [24/0800-25/0100Z]
  Miyakejima (WMO47677,34.12N/139.52E,Alt 36m)     147.5 [23/1200-25/0100Z]
  Miyake-izu (JMA44229,34.12N/139.50E,Alt 50m)     191   [23/1200-25/0100Z]
  Miyake-ako (JMA44227,34.08N/139.48E,/Alt 30m)    271   [23/1200-25/0100Z]
  Miyake-tsubota (JMA44228,34.07N/139.56E,Alt 20m) 180   [23/1200-25/0100Z]


  {Part III} References (Japanese versions only)
  ==============================================

     http://www.data.kishou.go.jp/etrn/index.html>
     http://www.jma.go.jp>


  D. Further Discussion about the Name
  ------------------------------------

     I (Gary) received a copy of an e-mail to Katsuhiro Abe of the World
  Meteorological Organization from William Robichaud of the Centre for
  Biodiversity Research, Department of Zoology, University of British
  Columbia, located in Vancouver, BC.  This was in reference to a quote
  Mr. Robichaud had noted in the press regarding the name of Typhoon
  Saola.  According to Mr. Robichaud, while the species bearing the name
  saola was discovered in Vietnam, it also lives in Laos and the name is 
  in fact a Lao name.

     In the Lao and Lao-related languages spoken in the animal's range in
  both central Laos and Vietnam, "saola" is the word for a pair of
  parallel wooden posts that support part of small, local cotton spinning
  wheels.  Indigenous people gave this name to the animal because the
  tapering posts resemble a pair of saola horns (it is a type of ox).  An
  approximate translation of the species common name, therefore, is
  "spinning wheel posts".  (A thanks to Mr. Robichaud for sending me a
  copy of his interesting and informative letter.)

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with contributions by Huang Chunliang
  and Gary Padgett)



                             TYPHOON DAMREY
                       (TC-17W / TY-0518 / LABUYO)
                            19 - 27 September
             -----------------------------------------------

  Damrey: contributed by Cambodia, means 'elephant'

  A. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     At 0230 UTC 19 September a TCFA was issued for the disturbance which 
  was to become Typhoon Damrey.  Remarks in this statement included: "An 
  area of convection near 13.1N/128.4E, approximately 430 nm east of 
  Manila, Philippines, has persisted over the last 12 hours.  Recent 
  multi-spectral satellite imagery shows increasing organization and deep 
  convection around a broad but distinct low-level circulation center.  An 
  upper-air analysis indicates favourable westward and poleward outflow 
  and low vertical wind shear."  The system remained under the TCFA until
  it was replaced by the first warning on Tropical Depression 17W at
  20/1200 UTC.  Because it was an immediate threat to the Philippines,
  PAGASA assigned the name Labuyo at 19/0600 UTC for local use within the
  Philippines.  TD-17W was upgraded to Tropical Storm Damrey at 21/0000 UTC
  after both JTWC and JMA simultaneously increased their MSW estimates to
  35-kts.  At this time, Damrey/Labuyo was centred approximately 420 nm
  south-southeast of Taipei, Taiwan.
 
     Damrey/Labuyo remained at tropical storm intensity for several days. 
  After the MSW rose slowly to 50 kts on 21 September there was no 
  further strengthening for over 24 hours.  Reasons for this were close 
  proximity to land, restricted poleward outflow, and moderate wind shear 
  conditions.  A well-established ridge extending eastward from southeast 
  Asia was to ensure that there would be no recurvature for this tropical 
  cyclone.  Initially moving towards the north-northwest, Damrey turned 
  west-northwestwards, passing through the Babuyan Islands and clipping 
  the far northeastern corner of Luzon on 21 September.  Movement was 
  slower in the Luzon Strait on 22 September before a more westerly 
  heading became established on 23 September, followed by a west-
  southwesterly track the next day.  During this time, Damrey underwent 
  slight intensification with the MSW reaching 55 kts at 23/0000 before 
  weakening to 45 kts at 23/1200 UTC. 

     Once the struggle was over and there were less environmental 
  restrictions, Damrey was able to strengthen again and was upgraded to a 
  65-kt typhoon at 24/1800 UTC while located approximately 200 nm southwest
  of Hong Kong, China.  After a rather rapid strengthening period, Damrey
  reached its maximum intensity of 90 kts at 25/0600 UTC.  A slow weakening
  trend commenced as the storm veered westwards and began to approach the
  island of Hainan.    By the time Damrey made landfall in the Chinese
  Province at around 26/0000 UTC, the MSW had dropped to 75 kts.  The
  system, however, managed to maintain a large well-defined eye until it
  quickly faded soon after landfall.  Weakening continued as Damrey crossed
  southern Hainan, the system moving on a rather peculiar bending track
  which appeared to deflect the typhoon round the coastline.  The tropical
  cyclone was downgraded to a 55-kt tropical storm at 26/1200 UTC.  After
  crossing the Gulf of Tonkin, Damrey came ashore near Hanoi, Vietnam,
  early on 27 September.  Intensity at landfall was estimated at 55 kts.
  JTWC and JMA issued their final warnings at 27/0600 UTC and 27/1800 UTC,
  respectively, with the cyclone then moving into Laos and dissipating.
  
  (Editor's Note: It should be pointed out that there were very insistent
  meteorological voices to the effect that Damrey was a typhoon while in
  transit over the Gulf of Tonkin, based on visible and microwave imagery.
  It is interesting to note that JMA estimated a 10-min avg MSW of 60 kts
  (equivalent to about 65 kts 1-min avg) whereas JTWC's MSW was 55 kts
  during this period.)

     NMCC estimated a maximum intensity of 110 kts while HKO estimated a 
  peak strength of 90 kts.  JMA, CWB of Taiwan, and TMD of Thailand all 
  estimated a peak intensity of 80 kts while PAGASA estimated a peak 
  strength of 50 kts while Damrey was within that agency's AOR.   The 
  minimum CP estimated by JMA was 955 mb.

     A graphic depicting the track of Typhoon Damrey/Labuyo may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/w_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-17W-DAMREY.gif>
  

  B. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     Typhoon Damrey swept across much of southeast and eastern Asia,
  leaving at least 114 people dead.  It was described as the worst storm in
  over a decade.  Vietnam suffered the heaviest damage.  Thousands of homes
  were destroyed or severely damaged as the strong winds blew off the 
  poorly-constructed metal roof tops.  An estimated 100,000 trees were 
  uprooted, along with 300,000 fruit trees.  Storm-surge flooding which 
  pushed sea water 3 to 4 km inland in coastal provinces along with flash
  floods reportedly destroyed at least 1,194 houses and damaging 11,576
  others.  Hundreds of metres of sea dykes were ruptured in the districts
  of Nam Dinh and Thanh Hoa.      Property damage is estimated at US 209
  million dollars. 

     Agriculture in Vietnam was also severely affected.  Thousands of
  people are facing starvation in the coming months after their months of
  labour in cultivating 300,000 ha of rice and cash crops were completely
  wasted.  Salt from the sea water flooding the rice fields made growing 
  winter crops virtually impossible.  Options to earn a living are also 
  slim with the loss of 22,000 shrimp and fish ponds.  The 600,000 people 
  who evacuated ahead of the storm are also facing huge losses when they 
  return.  There is no water supply, electricity or food.  Damages to 
  wells caused by sea water has made drinking water unavailable in most 
  areas. 

     According to news reports, the death toll from Typhoon Damrey in 
  China's island province of Hainan was 25.  Economic losses were 
  estimated at 11.6 billion yuan (about 1.5 billion US dollars).  Damrey 
  almost completely wiped out Hainan's aquaculture industry and damaged 
  this season's farm yield of rubber, tropical fruits and vegetables, as 
  well as knocking out the entire power grid system, and severely 
  affecting the water conservancy facilities. 

     The total death toll in the Philippines attributed to Damrey was 16.


  C. Huang Chunliang China Report
  -------------------------------

  {Part I} Landfall
  =================

     According to the NMCC warnings, Typhoon 0518 (Damrey) moved inland
  near Shangen Town, Wanning City, Hainan Province, around 25/2000 UTC
  with a MSW of 45 m/s (90 kts) and a CP of 950 hPa, making itself the
  strongest typhoon to make landfall in Hainan Island since Typhoon 7423
  (Della).  Trampling across the island, Damrey reemerged in the Gulf of
  Tonkin around 26/0930 UTC.


  {Part II} Daily Top-5 Rainfall Obs from Taiwan Province
  =======================================================

  [20/1600-21/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  01         WMO 46762          Taitung County      105.0 mm
  02         CWB C1Z02          Hualien County       93.0 mm
  03         CWB C0R28          Pingtung County      92.0 mm
  04         CWB C1T99          Hualien County       85.5 mm
  05         CWB C1Z04          Hualien County       84.5 mm


  [21/1600-22/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0T87          Hualien County      444.0 mm
  02         CWB C1T98          Hualien County      438.0 mm
  03         CWB C0A56          Taipei County       437.0 mm
  04         CWB 01A43          Taipei County       395.0 mm
  05         CWB C1T95          Hualien County      375.5 mm
 

  [22/1600-23/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0U65          Ilan County         234.0 mm
  02         WMO 46759          Pingtung County     218.0 mm
  03         CWB C0A56          Taipei County       216.5 mm
  04         CWB C0R36          Pingtung County     179.0 mm
  05         CWB C1U66          Ilan County         165.0 mm
  

  {Part III} Meteorological Obs from Hainan Province
  ==================================================

  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     12 counties/cities recorded gusts >= Beaufort Force 12 during the
  typhoon.

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 48-hr period ending at 27/0000 UTC, storm totals >= 200 mm
  were reported by 9 counties/cities with Wuzhishan City (WMO59941, 18.77N/
  109.52E, Alt 329m) reporting the highest amount of 455 mm.  Sanya City
  (WMO59948, 18.23N/109.52E, Alt 7m) reported the highest daily amount of
  384 mm [26/0000-27/0000Z].

  3. Hydrological Obs
  -------------------

     Station Qinglan reported record-breaking water level during the
  typhoon:

  Station                 Peak Water Level      Former Record
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  Qinglan                 1.82 m [25/1900Z]     1.70 m [1985]

 
  {Part IV} Meteorological Obs from Guangdong Province
  ====================================================

  1. Top-1 Wind Obs
  -----------------

     Haian Town, Xuwen County, Zhanjiang City reported sustained winds
  topping 22.0 m/s with gusts peaking at 35.0 m/s during the typhoon.

  2. Top-1 Rainfall Obs
  ---------------------

     Jinjiang, Enping County, Jiangmen City reported 2-day total of 213 mm.


  {Part V} Meteorological Obs from Hong Kong S.A.R.
  =================================================

     http://www.weather.gov.hk/informtc/damrey/damrey.htm>


  {Part VI} Damage and Casualties
  ===============================

  Mainland China
  --------------

        Population        Deaths   Farmland       Houses   Direct Economic
  Evacuated     Affected          Damaged (ha)   Toppled     Loss (yuan)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  542,000      8,907,000    29     1,133,000      33,600    12,190,000,000

     Hainan suffered the worst from Damrey with 25 deaths and 11.64 billion
  yuan of direct economic losses being reported in the province.   The
  violent typhoon at one point paralysed power supplies in the whole Hainan
  Island, something which is very rare for the province.


  {Part VI} References
  ====================

     http://www.nmc.gov.cn>      
     http://ncc.cma.gov.cn>      
     http://mb.hainan.gov.cn>    
     http://www.cwb.gov.tw>      
     http://www.weather.gov.hk>  


  D. Miscellaneous Rainfall Observations
  --------------------------------------

     Following are rainfall observations compiled and sent by Huang
  Chunliang from the Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand.  Only 24-hour
  amount(s) >= 100 mm are listed.

  (1) Philippines
  ===============

  DAET (14.13N/122.98E)                      159.0 mm [19/00-20/00Z]
  CATANDUANES RADAR (13.98N/124.32E)         136.4 mm [19/00-20/00Z]
  VIRAC (13.58N/124.23E)                     114.4 mm [19/00-20/00Z]
  PILI (13.57N/123.27E)                      107.0 mm [19/00-20/00Z]
  LAOAG (18.18N/120.53E)                     402.0 mm [21/00-22/00Z]
  BAGUIO (16.42N/120.60E)                    333.9 mm [21/00-22/00Z]
  VIGAN (17.57N/120.38E)                     269.8 mm [21/00-22/00Z]
  ITBAYAT (20.80N/121.85E)                   174.5 mm [21/00-22/00Z]
  DAGUPAN (16.05N/120.33E)                   115.4 mm [21/00-22/00Z]
  LAOAG (18.18N/120.53E)                     212.0 mm [22/00-23/00Z]
  VIGAN (17.57N/120.38E)                     191.6 mm [22/00-23/00Z]

  (2) Vietnam
  ===========

  HA NOI (21.03N/105.80E)                    144.1 mm [26/12-27/12Z]
  BACH LONG VI (20.13N/107.72E)              131.8 mm [26/12-27/12Z]
  VINH (18.67N/105.68E)                      126.3 mm [26/12-27/12Z]
  NAM DINH (20.43N/106.15E)                  120.2 mm [26/12-27/12Z]

  (3) Thailand
  ============

  NAKHON PHANOM (17.42N/104.78E)             109.8 mm [26/06-27/06Z]
  NAKHON PHANOM (17.42N/104.78E)             127.0 mm [26/12-27/12Z]
  SAKON NAKHON (17.15N/104.13E)              101.6 mm [26/12-27/12Z]
  NAKHON PHANOM (17.42N/104.78E)             176.7 mm [26/18-27/18Z]
  SAKON NAKHON (17.15N/104.13E)              109.4 mm [26/18-27/18Z]
  NAKHON PHANOM (17.42N/104.78E)             151.4 mm [27/00-28/00Z]
  SAKON NAKHON (17.15N/104.13E)              111.5 mm [27/00-28/00Z]
  SAKON NAKHON (17.15N/104.13E)              103.0 mm [27/06-28/06Z]


  E. Additional Philippine Rainfall Observations
  ----------------------------------------------

     Rainfall observations taken at Naga City, Philippines, by Michael
  V. Padua may be accessed at the following link:

     http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stormarchives/2005/observations/labuyo2005.gif>

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang)



                         SUPER TYPHOON LONGWANG
                      (TC-19W / TY 0519 / MARING)
                        25 September - 3 October
            -----------------------------------------------

  Longwang: contributed by China, is the name of the Dragon King, who is
            the god of rain in Chinese mythology.   In ancient times,
            people offered sacrifices to the Dragon King, praying for
            timely rainfall and abundant harvests.

  A. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     A day or so after JTWC began issuing STWOs on the disturbance that 
  became Super Typhoon Longwang, a TCFA was written at 1530 UTC on
  25 September.  At this time, the system was moving slowly northwestward
  approximately 245 nm north of Saipan.   Comments in the TCFA include: 
  "...Animated enhanced infrared imagery reveals an increase in 
  convection over the low level circulation center (LLCC).  Independent 
  Dvorak intensity estimates have increased to T1.5 across all reporting 
  agencies.  An upper-level analysis indicates the LLCC remains in an 
  environment of low vertical wind shear, favorable divergence, and 
  increasing 850-mb vorticity."    The first warning on Tropical
  Depression 19W quickly followed at 25/1800 UTC.  JMA upgraded TD-19W
  to a 35-kt (10-min avg) tropical storm at 26/0000 UTC, assigning the
  name Longwang.  JTWC increased their MSW to 35-kts six hours later.

     Tropical Storm Longwang quickly strengthened and was upgraded to a
  70-kt typhoon at 0000 UTC 27 September while centred approximately
  190 nm south of Iwo Jima.  Initially drifting towards the west or west-
  northwest, Longwang briefly turned northwestwards towards a weakness 
  located between two steering ridges.  The ridge extending from eastern 
  Asia became the primary controlling mechanism, and Typhoon Longwang, 
  following the contours of this ridge, returned to its original west to 
  west-northwesterly heading late on 27 September.   Meanwhile, rapid 
  intensification continued and by 0600 UTC 28 September Longwang was a 
  major typhoon with MSW of 120 kts.  Strengthening ceased at this point, 
  and the intensity remained constant for over 24 hours.  (PAGASA 
  assigned the name Maring after the system had entered their AOR at 
  29/0000 UTC.)  Longwang finally reached its peak intensity as a 130-kt 
  super typhoon at 29/1200 UTC while centred approximately 405 nm east-
  southeast of Okinawa. 

     Even though Longwang was downgraded back to ordinary typhoon intensity
  at 0600 UTC 30 September, the tropical cyclone remained an extremely 
  intense system for the next two days.  Continuing on a predominantly 
  westerly track, Longwang's intensity fluctuated between 120-125 kts 
  before the storm began to steadily weaken late on 1 October.  After 
  turning to a west-northwestward heading, Longwang made landfall near 
  Huelien, Taiwan, at 02/0000 UTC with a MSW of 105 kts.   Typhoon 
  Longwang crossed Taiwan in only six hours and was still a rather 
  powerful 90-kt tropical cyclone when it emerged over the Taiwan Strait. 
  Weakening continued and Longwang made its final landfall in Fujian 
  Province, China, as a minimal typhoon at 02/1800 UTC, the time that 
  JTWC issued their final warning.  JMA continued to monitor Longwang's 
  progress further inland via their bulletins until 03/1800 UTC.  

     NMCC estimated a peak MSW value of 120 kts while HKO estimated a 
  maximum strength of 110 kts.  CWB of Taiwan, PAGASA, and JMA estimated 
  peak intensities of 100, 90, and 95 kts, respectively, and JMA 
  estimated a minimum CP of 930 mb.

     A graphic depicting the track of Super Typhoon Longwang/Maring may
  be found at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/w_pacific/BT-IMAGES/2005-19W-LONGWANG.gif>
  

  B. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     News sources indicate that Typhoon Longwang caused one death and
  100 injuries in Taiwan.  Reports said the storm cut power to more than 
  760,000 households, ripped roofs off homes and damaged vehicles.  One 
  hundred people were forced to evacuate from three villages in Hualien 
  County, an area hit particularly badly.  A coastal community in Hualien 
  was flooded when high waves smashed through sea walls.  A cargo ship 
  ran aground off Hualien harbour and the arch gate of the Hualien Martyrs
  Shrine was knocked down by the strong winds.  International and 
  domestic flights were grounded and rail services suspended.  The 
  Council of Agriculture estimated the losses to agricultural products 
  and facilities in Taiwan at NT$ 85.3 million (2.5 million US dollars). 

     A total of 147 deaths were reported in Fujian Province, including over
  80 police recruits killed in a landslide which destroyed the building
  where they were staying.   Around 600,000 people in Fujian and Guangdong 
  Provinces were evacuated ahead of the storm.   All transportation was 
  disrupted.    Typhoon Longwang lashed Fujian for around 10 hours, 
  uprooting trees and causing extensive flooding.  A river burst its 
  banks, inundating the city of Fuzhou with 6.5 feet (2 metres) of water. 
  Preliminary figures according to the Xinhua News Agency said Longwang 
  destroyed 5,400 houses and crops on over 26,000 hectares (64,220 acres) 
  of farmland.  The publication added that the storm caused around 1.2 
  billion yuan (148 million US dollars) of damage to the economy of 
  Fujian.


  C. Huang Chunliang China Report
  -------------------------------

  {Part I} Landfalls
  ==================

     The CWB warnings indicated that Severe Typhoon 0519 (Longwang) made
  landfall over Taiwan Island near Fongbin Town, Hualien County, around
  01/2115 UTC with a MSW of 51 m/s (100 kts) and a CP of 925 hPa.  After
  weakening into a Moderate Typhoon, Longwang reemerged in the Taiwan
  Strait from the mouth of Choshui River around 02/0200 UTC.

     On the other hand, according to the NMCC warnings, Typhoon 0519
  (Longwang) first made landfall near Hualien City, Taiwan Province,
  around 01/2130 UTC with a MSW of 50 m/s (100 kts) and a CP of 940 hPa.
  Traversing Taiwan Island and then the Taiwan Strait, the typhoon made a
  second landfall over the mainland near Weitou Town, Jinjiang City
  (a sub-city of Quanzhou City), Fujian Province, around 02/1335 UTC with
  a MSW of 33 m/s (65 kts) and a CP of 975 hPa.  Final landfall occurred
  around 02/1540 UTC, when the fading Severe Tropical Storm traveled
  inland near Longhai City (a sub-city of Zhangzhou City), Fujian Province,
  with a MSW of 30 m/s (60 kts) and a CP of 980 hPa.


  {Part II} Meteorological Obs from Taiwan Province
  =================================================

  1. Peak Sustained Wind & Gust Obs
  ---------------------------------

     Only those stations that reported sustained winds of gale force or
  gusts of typhoon force are given:

                                         Peak SW            Peak Gust
  Station                           (mps/Local Date)    (mps/Local Date)
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  An Bu      (WMO46691, Alt 827m)        15.4/ 2nd           36.9/ 2nd
  Hualien    (WMO46763/59362, Alt 14m)   45.2/ 2nd          *64.9/ 2nd
  Suao       (WMO46706, Alt 3m)          23.4/ 2nd           34.1/ 2nd
  Chenggong  (WMO46761, Alt 37m)         18.7/ 2nd           31.2/ 2nd
  Wuci       (WMO46777, Alt 5m)          27.1/ 2nd           42.4/ 2nd
  Dongshi    (WMO46730/59348, Alt 45m)   23.3/ 2nd           33.5/ 2nd
  Lanyu      (WMO46762/59567, Alt 325m)  24.1/ 2nd           34.7/ 2nd
  Mastsu     (WMO46799, Alt 92m)         17.9/ 2nd           30.1/ 2nd

  Note (*): The peak gust value has broken the former station record of
  62.1 m/s, which was associated with Typhoon Louise 46 years ago.


  2. Daily Top-5 Rainfall Obs
  ---------------------------

  [01/1600-02/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  -----------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0T82          Hualien County      764.5 mm
  02         CWB C1T80          Hualien County      659.0 mm
  03         CWB C0U71          Ilan County         576.0 mm
  04         CWB C1T81          Hualien County      510.5 mm
  05         CWB C1T86          Hualien County      473.0 mm


  {Part III} Meteorological Obs from Fujian Province
  ==================================================
 
  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     Highest gust report of the insular stations----45.6 m/s @ Xiayu,
  Lianjiang County, Fuzhou City.

     Highest gust report of the non-insular stations----38 m/s @ Changle
  City (a sub-city of Fuzhou City).


  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 48-hr period ending at 04/0000 UTC, storm totals >= 200 mm
  were reported by 5 counties/cities:  Changle City (a sub-city of Fuzhou
  City/WMO58941)----332 mm, Fuzhou City (WMO58847)----263 mm, Longhai City
  (a sub-city of Zhangzhou City/WMO59127)----263 mm, Luoyuan County (a
  county of Fuzhou City/WMO58845)----252 mm, Minhou County (a county of
  Fuzhou City/WMO58844)----236 mm.

  Extrema from Changle (a sub-city of Fuzhou City/WMO58941)
  ---------------------------------------------------------
  Daily rainfall: 331 mm [02/0000-03/0000Z]
  12-hr rainfall: 316 mm [02/0200-01/1400Z]
  06-hr rainfall: 303 mm [02/0800-02/1400Z]
  03-hr rainfall: 276 mm [02/1100-02/1400Z]
  01-hr rainfall: 152 mm [02/1100-02/1200Z]

  Extrema from Fuzhou (WMO58847)
  -----------------------------------------
  03-hr rainfall: 182 mm [02/1100-02/1400Z]
  01-hr rainfall: 111 mm [02/1200-02/1300Z]

  Extrema from Luoyuan (a county of Fuzhou City/WMO58845)
  -------------------------------------------------------
  01-hr rainfall: 108 mm [02/1500-02/1600Z]

  Extrema from Jiefang Bridge (a hydrological station in Fuzhou City)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  03-hr rainfall: 194 mm
  01-hr rainfall: 118 mm

  Extrema from Bayi Reservoir (a hydrological station in Fuzhou City)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  03-hr rainfall: 195 mm
  01-hr rainfall: 110 mm

  Extrema from Buzhengping (a hydrological station in Lianjiang County,
  Fuzhou City)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  01-hr rainfall: 110 mm


  3. Obs from Fuzhou City
  -----------------------

     In Chinese, "Longwang" means "The Dragon King", who's the god of rain
  in Chinese mythology.  And the typhoon indeed deserved the name.

     We woke up in the morning of Oct 3 (LST) and found that half of the
  city was inundated by floodwaters topping 2 meters in depth, resulting
  from the astonishing torrential rains which had poured down during the
  night (LST).  Station Fuzhou (WMO58847) reported 111 mm of rain,
  accompanied by continual thunder and lightning, within one hour
  [02/1200-02/1300Z] alone, while several WMO stations distributed in the
  counties/sub-cities, as well as many hydrological stations located in the
  city, also recorded 100+mm/hour rains with Station Changle (WMO58941)
  suffering the worst from the typhoon (see Section 2).

     Longwang was also a windy typhoon for Fuzhou. A couple of counties/
  sub-cities reported gusts beyond typhoon force (see Section 1), though
  the urban area recorded gusts of gale force only.


  {Part IV} Rainfall Obs from Other Provinces
  ===========================================

  1. Zhejiang Province
  --------------------

     During the 96-hr period ending at 05/0000 UTC, storm totals >= 200 mm
  were reported by 8 stations (including hydrological stations) with
  Xinzha, Taizhou City, reporting the highest amount of 292 mm.  Xinzha
  also reported the highest 1-hr rainfall of the province, amounting to
  100 mm.

  2. Jiangxi Province
  -------------------

     During the 36-hr period ending at 04/0000 UTC, storm totals >= 50 mm
  were reported by 20 counties/cities with Nanfeng County reporting the
  highest amount of 128 mm.


  {Part V} Damage and Casualties
  ==============================

  1. Mainland China
  -----------------

                Population       Deaths Farmland    Houses  Direct Economic
  Province  Evacuated  Affected        Damaged (ha) Toppled   Loss (yuan)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Fujian    537,000   4,028,000    147   130,000    9,000   7,478,000,000
  Zhejiang   86,000     484,000    ---     9,000    -----     300,000,000
  Jiangxi    ------     222,000    ---    21,000    -----      40,000,000

  [TOTAL]  [623,000] [4,734,000]  [147] [160,000]  [9,000]  [7,818,000,000]

     Longwang had become the most deadly tropical cyclone for China during
  the 2005 typhoon season.  All the 147 deaths, including more than 80
  armed police cadets, who lost their lives in a single landslide that
  destroyed the barracks in Minhou County, Fuzhou City, were reported in
  Fujian Province.

  2. Taiwan
  ---------

     Preliminary statistics indicated that Typhoon Longwang left at least
  one death and more than 50 people injured in Taiwan.  Agricultural losses
  in the province were estimated to be over NT$ 500 million.


  {Part VI} References (All in Chinese version)
  =============================================

     http://www.nmc.gov.cn>    
     http://ncc.cma.gov.cn>    
     http://www.cwb.gov.tw>    
     http://www.fjqx.gov.cn>   
     http://www.zjwater.com>   


  D. Huang Chunliang Japan Report
  -------------------------------

     Information obtained from the following link:

     http://www.okinawa-jma.go.jp>


  Station        Min SLP (hPa)      Peak SW (m/s)     Peak Gust (m/s)
  --------------------------------------------------------------------
  Ishigakijima   997.1 [01/1105Z]   22.0 [01/1140Z]   44.2 [01/1131Z]
  Iriomotejima   997.4 [01/1143Z]   18.8 [01/1340Z]   34.9 [01/1159Z]
  Yonagunijima   994.6 [01/1652Z]   25.1 [01/1410Z]   37.5 [01/1422Z]


  Note:  Ishigakijima @ WMO47918, 24.34N/124.16E, Alt  6 m
         Iriomotejima @ WMO47917, 24.39N/123.75E, Alt  9 m
         Yonagunijima @ WMO47912, 24.47N/123.01E, Alt 30 m

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang)

  *************************************************************************

  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for September:  2 depressions **
                           1 cyclonic storm **

  ** - no warnings were issued for any of these systems by JTWC


                        Sources of Information
                        ----------------------

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   Occasionally some
  information may be gleaned from the daily tropical weather outlooks
  and other bulletins issued by the Indian Meteorological Department
  (IMD), which is the World Meteorological Organization's Regional
  Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) for the basin.
 
     The reported maximum sustained winds (MSW) are based on a 1-minute
  averaging period, which is used by all U. S. civilian and military
  weather services for tropical cyclone warnings.     For synoptic
  observations in the North Indian Ocean region, both 10-minute and
  3-minute average winds are employed, but IMD makes no attempt to
  modify the Dvorak scale for estimating tropical cyclone intensity;
  hence, a 1-minute average MSW is implied.  In the North Indian Ocean
  basin JTWC usually does not initiate warnings until a system has
  become well-organized and likely to attain tropical storm status
  within 48 hours.


            North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for September
            --------------------------------------------------

     Three tropical cyclonic systems were classified by IMD during the
  month of September.  Two systems were treated as depressions, while
  one became a named cyclonic storm.   JTWC issued no warnings for any
  of these systems.   Cyclonic Storm Pyarr's origins lay in the South
  China Sea when a tropical depression formed on 12 September and moved
  westward into Vietnam without attaining tropical storm intensity.  The
  depression subsequently tracked westward across Southeast Asia and
  eventually entered the Bay of Bengal.  It then moved northwestward to 
  the head of the Bay, then turned west-southwestward toward India's East
  Coast.  Just offshore it strengthened and was named Pyarr by the IMD.
  A report on this cyclonic storm follows.

     A low-pressure area formed over the south-central Bay of Bengal on
  6 September and moved northwestward toward coastal Andhra Pradesh on
  the 7th.   The system persisted in the region for several days, and
  finally concentrated into a depression on the morning of 12 September
  (Indian time) while located about 80 nm east of Paradip.  The depression
  moved west-northwestward and crossed the Orissa coast later that day
  and continued moving further inland into central India.  It weakened
  into a low-pressure area on the 14th, but was briefly re-upgraded to
  a depression on the 16th while centered near Agra.  By the 17th it had
  weakened once more over western Uttar Pradesh.  This system's NRL Invest
  number was 94B, and it was carried in JTWC's STWO's for the North Indian
  Ocean as an area with 'poor' development potential.

     Another low-pressure area formed in the northwestern Arabian Sea
  near the southern Gujurat coast on 13 September.  This system had become
  concentrated enough to be classified as a tropical depression by early
  on the 14th (Indian time) while located about 110 nm southwest of
  Veraval, Gujurat.  It persisted in the same area until the 15th and
  weakened into a low-pressure area on the morning of the 16th.  The system
  then moved northward and inland into Gujurat state on the 17th.  This 
  system's NRL Invest number was 95A, and it was given a 'fair' potential 
  for development by JTWC for a short time on the 13th/14th.

     A special thanks to Huang Chunliang for compiling and sending me the
  information on these depressions.  Most of the above information was
  obtained from the IMD's India Weekly Weather Reports.   Following are
  some rainfall amounts associated with these weather systems which were
  also compiled by Chunliang.  Only daily amounts >= 20 cm are listed.

  (1) Bay of Bengal Depression
  ============================

  Nawarangpur, ORISSA                   30 cm [11/03-12/03Z]
  Bhawanipatna, ORISSA                  25 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Hindol, ORISSA                        23 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Narsinghpur, ORISSA                   22 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Junagarh, ORISSA                      21 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Nayagarh, ORISSA                      21 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Phulbani, ORISSA                      21 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Bareilly, UTTAR PRADESH               27 cm [16/03-17/03Z]
  Bareilly (FM), UTTAR PRADESH          21 cm [16/03-17/03Z]
  Srinagar, UTTARANCHAL                 24 cm [16/03-17/03Z]
  Shantipuri, UTTARANCHAL               24 cm [16/03-17/03Z]
  Nainital, UTTARANCHAL                 20 cm [16/03-17/03Z]


  (2) Arabian Sea Depression
  ==========================

  Mangrol, GUJARAT                  20 cm [12/03-13/03Z]
  Pindwara, RAJASTHAN               20 cm [18/03-19/03Z]



                          CYCLONIC STORM PYARR
                                (BOB0502)
                            12 - 21 September
                ----------------------------------------

  A. South China Sea Origin
  -------------------------

     A STWO issued by JTWC at 0600 UTC on 12 September indicated that an
  area of convection had persisted in the South China Sea about 430 nm
  west-southwest of Manila.  QuikScat data depicted a broad, LLCC with
  most of the deep convection confined equatorward of the center.  JTWC
  ranked this as a 'poor' development area and never issued any warnings.
  Several of the Asian TCWCs, however, did classify this system as a
  tropical depression, including JMA, HKO, the CWB of Taiwan, the
  Guangzhou Regional Meteorological Centre (GRMC), and the Thai Meteor-
  ological Department (TMD).  All these warning agencies estimated peak
  10-min avg winds of 30 kts associated with the depression.  It seems
  likely that this system had some pronounced monsoon depression
  characteristics, and therefore JTWC did not initiate warnings, whereas
  in general the Asian warning centers do not make such a sharp distinction
  between monsoon depressions and "classic" tropical depressions.

     The depression subsequently moved westward and inland into central
  Vietnam around 13/0000 UTC.  Following landfall the system took a turn
  toward the northwest, reaching southern Laos by 13/1200 UTC, then
  abruptly returned to a westerly track across central Thailand.  While
  in the South China Sea the system's Monterrey NRL Invest number was
  93W, but upon entering the Bay of Bengal region it was renumbered as
  96B.  By 15/0000 UTC the weak depression's center was emerging into
  the northern Andaman Sea.


  B. Bay of Bengal History
  ------------------------

     As tracked by the TMD, the depression moved westward, crossing the
  southern tip of Myanmar (formerly Burma), thence turning northwestward
  up the Bay of Bengal proper.  The system moved erratically while south of
  the delta of the Ganges River, then turned west-southwestward toward the
  eastern coast of India.  The TMD had maintained this disturbance as a
  tropical depression all along, but the India Meteorological Department
  (IMD) first classified it as a depression on the morning of the 17th
  when it was centered approximately 215 nm southeast of Balasore.  The
  system moved in a generally westward direction and had reached deep
  depression status (i.e., 30 kts) by the morning of 18 September when
  centered about 55 nm east of Paradeep.  The depression then began to
  move in a west-southwesterly direction and intensified into Cyclonic
  Storm Pyarr around 18/1200 UTC while located about 45 nm east-southeast
  of Puri.  The maximum winds estimated by the IMD were around 35-45 kts.

     Cyclonic Storm Pyarr subsequently crossed the north Andhra Pradesh
  coast near Kalingapatnam early on the 19th.  It then moved westward
  and lay centered about 50 km west of Kalingapatnam on the evening of
  the 19th.  It had weakened to a deep depression by around 19/2100 UTC
  and to a depression by 1200 UTC on 20 September when it was located
  about 150 km west of Jagdalpur.  The system then moved northwestward
  as it continued to weaken, passing near Chandrapur in Vidarbha early
  on 21 September.  The remnants continued to moved on into the region
  of northwestern India before completely washing out on the 26th.  (Some
  of the above information was taken from the IMD India Weekly Weather
  Reports, compiled and sent to the author by Huang Chunliang.)

     JTWC did not issue any warnings on Pyarr, it being treated as a 'poor'
  area in a couple of STWOs.  However, satellite classifications from SAB
  justified tropical storm intensity, remaining at T2.5/2.5 or higher for
  over 24 hours prior to landfall, and peaking at T3.0/3.0 at 18/0230 UTC.

     A graphic depicting the track of Cyclonic Storm Pyarr may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2005/indian/BT-IMAGES/2005-93W-96B-PYARR.gif>


  C. Rainfall Reports by Huang Chunliang
  --------------------------------------

     Following are rainfall observations compiled and sent to the author
  by Huang Chunliang.  A special thanks to Chunliang for his assistance.

  (1) Observations from Thailand (only daily amount(s) >= 100 mm listed):
  =======================================================================

  SUPHAN BURI (14.47N/100.13E)            104.0 mm [12/12-13/12Z]
  KO SICHANG (13.17N/100.80E)             137.6 mm [13/00-14/00Z]
  KHLONG YAI (11.77N/102.88E)             134.2 mm [13/00-14/00Z]
  CHANTHABURI (12.60N/102.12E)            133.1 mm [13/00-14/00Z]
  CHANTHABURI (12.60N/102.12E)            172.1 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  KO SICHANG (12.60N/102.12E)             147.9 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  KHLONG YAI (11.77N/102.88E)             144.9 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  SUPHAN BURI (14.47N/100.13E)            128.4 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  BANGKOK (13.67N/100.62E)                116.4 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  CHON BURI (13.37N/100.98E)              115.5 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  LOP BURI (14.80N/100.62E)               111.3 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  DON MUANG (13.92N/100.60E)              109.3 mm [13/06-14/06Z]
  SUPHAN BURI (14.47N/100.13E)            238.1 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  LOP BURI (14.80N/100.62E)               185.1 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  PRACHIN BURI (14.05N/101.37E)           181.8 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  CHANTHABURI (12.60N/102.12E)            170.7 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  KO SICHANG (13.17N/100.80E)             156.2 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  DON MUANG (13.92N/100.60E)              145.1 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  KHLONG YAI (11.77N/102.88E)             143.9 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  CHON BURI (13.37N/100.98E)              128.0 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  BANGKOK (13.67N/100.62E)                125.2 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  KANCHANABURI (14.02N/99.53E)            110.7 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  KABINBURI (13.98N/101.70E)              106.0 mm [13/12-14/12Z]
  SUPHAN BURI (14.47N/100.13E)            263.6 mm [13/18-14/18Z]
  LOP BURI (14.80N/100.62E)               180.4 mm [13/18-14/18Z]
  PRACHIN BURI (14.05N/101.37E)           141.9 mm [13/18-14/18Z]
  DON MUANG (13.92N/100.60E)              138.7 mm [13/18-14/18Z]
  CHANTHABURI (12.60N/102.12E)            136.3 mm [13/18-14/18Z]
  BANGKOK (13.67N/100.62E)                122.1 mm [13/18-14/18Z]
  SUPHAN BURI (14.47N/100.13E)            190.4 mm [14/00-15/00Z]
  LOP BURI (14.80N/100.62E)               119.5 mm [14/00-15/00Z]
  KANCHANABURI (14.02N/99.53E)            119.0 mm [14/00-15/00Z]
  THONG PHA PHUM (14.75N/98.63E)          100.3 mm [14/00-15/00Z]
  SUPHAN BURI (14.47N/100.13E)            142.4 mm [14/06-15/06Z]
  THONG PHA PHUM (14.75N/98.63E)          118.9 mm [14/06-15/06Z]
  THONG PHA PHUM (14.75N/98.63E)          100.5 mm [14/12-15/12Z]


  (2) Observations from India (only daily amount(s) >= 20 cm listed):
  ===================================================================

  Jeypore, ORISSA                      20 cm [18/03-19/03Z]
  Kalingapatnam, ANDHRA PRADESH        35 cm [18/03-19/03Z]
  Kakinada, ANDHRA PRADESH             28 cm [19/03-20/03Z]
  Rajahmundry, ANDHRA PRADESH          20 cm [19/03-20/03Z]
  Khammam, ANDHRA PRADESH              24 cm [19/03-20/03Z]
  Valpoi, GOA                          31 cm [21/03-22/03Z]
  Mapusa, GOA                          22 cm [21/03-22/03Z]
  Bhatsa, MAHARASHTRA                  21 cm [21/03-22/03Z]
  Vyara, GUJARAT                       22 cm [22/03-23/03Z]
  Halol, GUJARAT                       21 cm [22/03-23/03Z]
  Sankheda, GUJARAT                    21 cm [22/03-23/03Z]
  Nainital, UTTARANCHAL                22 cm [24/03-25/03Z]

  (Report written by Gary Padgett with significant contributions by
  Huang Chunliang)

  *************************************************************************

  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for September:  1 tropical disturbance


                          Sources of Information
                          ----------------------

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Southwest Indian Ocean tropical cyclones are the warnings issued by
  the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre on La Reunion Island, part of
  Meteo France (MFR), and the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre
  for the basin.    However, tropical cyclones in this region are named 
  by the Sub-regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centres in Mauritius and 
  Madagascar with longitude 55E being the demarcation line between their 
  respective areas of naming responsibility.  The La Reunion centre only 
  advises these agencies regarding the intensity of tropical systems.  
  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period unless
  otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from MFR's coordinates by usually
  40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the source of the
  1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included in the
  tracks file.    Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.


           Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for September
           ------------------------------------------------------

     The first numbered (by MFR) tropical disturbance of the 2005-2006
  season in the Southwest Indian Ocean appeared early in the month very
  deep in the tropics and in the eastern extremity of the basin, being
  located near 2.9S/88.7E at 0600 UTC on 5 September.  The disturbance
  moved to the southwest, and the final MFR bulletin, issued at 06/1200
  UTC, placed it near 8.0S/83.5E, or far to the east of Diego Garcia.
  The maximum winds were estimated at 25 kts (10-min avg) with locally
  stronger winds to the south of the center.  JTWC issued two TCFAs for
  this system on the 5th and 6th which estimated maximum winds at 30 to
  35 kts, yet no warnings were issued by that agency.  A track for this 
  system was included in the accompanying cyclone tracks file for 
  September.  A graphic depicting its track may be found at the following
  link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/2006/SOHEM/BT-IMAGES/2006-01R-DISTURBANCE.gif>

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA/SOUTHEAST INDIAN OCEAN (AUW) - From 90E to 135E

  Activity for September:  No tropical cyclones

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHEAST AUSTRALIA/CORAL SEA (AUE) - From 135E to 160E

  Activity for September:  No tropical cyclones

  *************************************************************************

  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for September:  No tropical cyclones


                South Pacific Tropical Activity for September
                ---------------------------------------------

     There were no tropical cyclones in the South Pacific east of 160E
  during September.  The Nadi, Fiji, TCWC did issue some gale warnings
  on the 4th and 5th for a LOW located east of the Dateline and to the
  south of Tonga.  This system was referred to as a depression in the
  gale warnings, but the latitude and time of year suggest that it was
  non-tropical or hybrid at best.   No track was included for this LOW
  in the September tropical cyclone tracks file.

  *************************************************************************

         SPECIAL FEATURE - SOURCES OF TROPICAL CYCLONE INFORMATION

     The purpose of this section is to list some websites where many and
  varied types of tropical cyclone information are archived.  Many readers
  will know about these already, but for the benefit of those who don't,
  I wanted to include them. 

  (1) Aircraft Reconnaissance Information
  ---------------------------------------

     Various types of messages from reconnaissance aircraft may be
  retrieved from the following FTP site:

     ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/products/nhc/recon/>

     Information regarding how to interpret the coded reconnaissance
  messages may be found at the following URL:

     http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/reconlist.shtml>

  Links are also included to websites with further information about the
  U. S. Air Force 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron and the NOAA Air-
  craft Operations Center.

  (2) Archived Advisories
  -----------------------

     All the advisory products (public advisories, forecast/advisories,
  strike probabilities, discussions, various graphics) issued by TPC/NHC
  are archived on TPC's website.  For the current year (using 2004 as an
  example), the archived products can be found at:

     http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2004/index.shtml>

  Links to tropical products archives for earlier years are available at
  the following URL:

     http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml>

  JTWC warnings for past storms are archived on the NRL Monterry website:

     http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/tc_pages/tc_home.html>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.

     I am not aware at the moment of any other TCWC which archives all
  its tropical cyclone warning/advisory products for public access, but
  if I learn of any, I will add them to this list.

  (3) Satellite Imagery
  ---------------------

     Satellite images of tropical cyclones in various sensor bands are
  available on the NRL Monterrey and University of Wisconsin websites,
  courtesy of Jeff Hawkins and Chris Velden and their associates.  The
  links are:

     http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/tc_pages/tc_home.html>

     http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic/tropic.html>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.  For the CIMSS site, a link to data archives is 
  located in the lower left portion of the screen.

     Additional tropical satellite imagery, along with looping ability for
  composite microwave imagery for the Western Hemisphere north of the
  equator, can be found at:

  (1) For the Eastern North Pacific:

     http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/trop-epac.html>

  (2) For the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea:

     http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/trop-atl.html>

     I'm sure there are other sites with available imagery available, and
  as I learn of them, I will add the links to this list.

  *************************************************************************

                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the August, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.

  *************************************************************************

  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, Chris
  Landsea, and John Diebolt):

    http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/>
    http://www.typhoon2000.ph>
    http://mpittweather.com>
    ftp://ftp.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/pub/landsea/padgett/>
    http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/>


     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:

    http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/tropicalcyclone>
    

                    TROPICAL CYCLONE REPORTS AVAILABLE

     JTWC now has available on its website the Annual Tropical Cyclone
  Report (ATCR) for 2004 (2003-2004 season for the Southern Hemisphere).
  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.

     The URL is:  http://199.10.200.33/jtwc.html>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2004 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, storm reports for all the 2004 Atlantic
  and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as well as
  track charts and reports on storms from earlier years.   Additionally,
  some of the storm reports for the 2005 season are now available.

     The URL is:  http://www.nhc.noaa.gov>


     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  PREPARED BY

  Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  garyp@alaweb.com
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  Kevin Boyle  (Eastern Atlantic, Western Northwest Pacific, South
                China Sea)
  E-mail:  newchapelobservatory@btinternet.com

  John Wallace (Assistance with Eastern North Pacific)
  E-mail:  dosidicus@aol.com

  Huang Chunliang  (Assistance with Western Northwest Pacific, South
                    China Sea)
  E-mail:  huangchunliang@hotmail.com

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)
  E-mail:  saclarke@iprimus.com.au

  *************************************************************************
  *************************************************************************

Document: summ0509.htm
Updated: 12th February 2006

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