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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary July 2005
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]

                  MONTHLY GLOBAL TROPICAL CYCLONE SUMMARY

                                JULY, 2005
                                

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)

  *************************************************************************

                              JULY HIGHLIGHTS

   --> Unprecedented Atlantic activity for July with five storms
   --> Two intense Category 4 Caribbean hurricanes with major hurricane
       landfalls in Cuba, Mexico and Florida Panhandle
   --> Severe typhoon strikes Taiwan and Chinese mainland

  *************************************************************************

       !!!!! SPECIAL NOTE - SUSPENSION OF THE FEATURE OF THE MONTH !!!!!

     Effective with the July summary, I am for the time being discontinuing
  the Feature of the Month as a regular addition to the monthly summaries.
  I made this decision several months ago, but had enough things already
  planned to keep it going for a few issues.   I will continue from time to
  time to include extra features, such as I did prior to the initiation of
  the Feature of the Month beginning with the May, 2000, summary.   Some of
  the regular features such as various seasonal statistics and publicizing
  the storm names for the various basins will continue to be included, and
  occasionally other items of general interest may be included.   But my
  time has become much more restricted, and also I have just about run
  out of ideas for the monthly features except for the aforementioned
  "regulars".   Hopefully, someday in the future these additions to the
  summaries can be resumed on a monthly basis.

  *************************************************************************
  
                            ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for July:  3 tropical storms
                      2 intense hurricanes


                    Atlantic Tropical Activity for July
                    -----------------------------------

     July of 2005 was the most active month of July on record in terms of
  number of named storms, intense hurricanes and net tropical cyclone
  activity (NTC).   Five tropical storms formed during the month, besting
  the previous record of four set on several occasions (1966, 1995 and
  1997).   Two Category 3 hurricanes occurred in July of 1916, but this
  year saw two Category 4 hurricanes form during the month, and strong
  ones at that.  Emily was on the threshold of Category 5 intensity at
  its peak.  The record number of hurricanes for the month of July is
  three, set in 1966, so this year did not set a new record for that
  parameter.   The previous high NTC for July was 25.9% in 1996, with
  July of 1966 coming in second with 24.1%.  The NTC for July, 2005, was
  63.5%, more than the previous two most active July's combined.

     Of the five tropical cyclones which formed in July, four made land-
  fall in either the U. S. or Mexico.   Only Tropical Storm Franklin failed
  to make a continental landfall, but even it crossed part of Great Abaco
  Island in the Bahamas.  Tropical Storm Cindy made landfall over south-
  eastern Louisiana and again in extreme southwestern Mississippi.  Major
  Hurricane Dennis made two Category 4 landfalls in Cuba and eventually
  struck the Florida Panhandle as a Category 3 hurricane.  Mighty Hurricane
  Emily struck Grenada as a Category 1 hurricane, the eastern Yucatan
  Peninsula coastline as a Category 4 storm, and northeastern Mexico as
  a Category 3 hurricane.  Minor Tropical Storm Gert, much like June's
  Tropical Storm Bret, formed in the Bay of Campeche and moved inland
  into Mexico's Gulf Coast as a relatively weak tropical storm.

     Reports on all five storms follow.



                          TROPICAL STORM CINDY
                                 (TC-03)
                               3 - 8 July
                ----------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Right on the heels of an above-normal June, the most active July on
  record in the Atlantic basin began to get underway early in the month.
  Tropical Storm Cindy was the earliest third tropical storm of the season
  to form since Tropical Storm Candy formed on 23 June 1968.   The cyclone
  formed in the Yucatan Peninsula region and followed a northerly path
  across the Gulf of Mexico, making landfall in southeastern Louisiana
  as a strong tropical storm just shy of hurricane intensity.

     As early as 30 June a Tropical Weather Outlook issued by TPC/NHC
  noted that a large area of cloudiness and thunderstorms associated with
  a westward-moving tropical wave and a weak surface trough was present
  over the central and southwestern Caribbean Sea.  Upper-level winds
  gradually became more favorable for tropical cyclogenesis over the next
  couple of days, and by 2 July the disturbance was becoming better
  organized about midway between the Cayman Islands and Honduras.  By
  midday on 3 July a broad area of low pressure had formed about 130 nm
  east of Chetumal, Mexico.

     The Hurricane Hunters flew a reconnaissance plane into the system
  during the afternoon and found a closed circulation just east of the
  Yucatan Peninsula.  Even though deep convection had weakened some during
  the day, there was still enough organization to warrant classifying the
  system as a tropical depression.  The first advisory on Tropical Depres-
  sion 03 was issued at 2100 UTC and placed the center about 70 nm east
  of Chetumal, or approximately 125 nm south of Cozumel.


  B. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     During the evening hours of 3 July a strong convective burst erupted
  over the LLCC with a reconnaissance plane indicating a CP of 1007 mb--a
  drop of 2 mb in 2.5 hours.   Also, significant banding had developed to
  the east and north of the center.   The depression was almost at tropical
  storm strength as it began to move inland along the eastern Yucatan
  coastline around 04/0600 UTC south of Cozumel.  As expected TD-03 became
  rather disorganized while over the Yucatan Peninsula with the circulation
  elongating in a north-south direction.   During the afternoon of 4 July
  a new center apparently began reforming over the southern Gulf of Mexico.
  During an early afternoon flight the Hurricane Hunters were unable to
  close off a center, but it was assumed that a new center was forming in
  the area where pressures were lowest.  The 04/2100 UTC advisory placed
  the developing new LLCC over the Gulf to the north of the Yucatan coast-
  line and about 375 nm south of the mouth of the Mississippi River.

     Following the development of the new LLCC over the south-central Gulf
  of Mexico, the depression followed an initial north-northwesterly track
  across the Gulf, becoming northerly early on 5 July as it reached
  tropical storm intensity.  The primary guiding influence was a deep-layer
  ridge over the Florida Peninsula and the adjacent western Atlantic.  The
  outer convective banding features gradually improved during the night of
  4-5 July as TD-03 marched across the Gulf of Mexico at about 11 kts.  The
  depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Cindy at 0900 UTC on 5 July
  while centered approximately 220 nm south-southwest of the mouth of the
  Mississippi River.   The upgrade was based on data from a reconnaissance
  plane which found FLWs of 45-50 kts within a convective band east of the
  center along with a CP of 1002 mb.

     As Tropical Storm Cindy plowed onward toward the Louisiana coast it
  continued to strengthen.  The peak intensity of 60 kts was attained at
  05/2100 UTC.  The Stepped-Frequency Radiometer instrument on board a
  NOAA Hurricane Hunter aircraft reported a few spot surface wind estimates
  of 64 kts; however, the aircraft crew indicated that these speeds were a
  little too high.   As Cindy neared the coastline a burst of deep
  convection developed over the LLCC and briefly wrapped up an eye-like
  feature for about an hour, and reconnaissance reports indicated that the
  CP had dropped to 992 mb.  Reports from an offshore oil rig indicated
  gusts to 86 kts at 45.7 metres above the surface at 2300 UTC.  However,
  after this time the radar signature became less distinct and the CP rose
  back to 997 mb.  Thus, Cindy almost became a hurricane shortly before
  making landfall just west of Grand Isle, Louisiana, around 0400 UTC on
  6 July.

     By the time Cindy made landfall it had turned to a north-northeasterly
  trajectory, which became more northeasterly with time.  The cyclone had
  weakened only slightly from its peak intensity when it passed just south-
  east of New Orleans.  Cindy's center moved briefly over water again as
  it crossed Lake Borgne, then back inland along the Mississippi coastline.
  Once inland the storm began to weaken rapidly and was downgraded to a
  tropical depression at 06/1500 UTC when centered near the Mississippi-
  Alabama state line approximately 80 km northwest of Mobile, Alabama.
  At this time TPC/NHC relinquished the system to HPC for the purpose of
  issuing advisories.  HPC tracked the weakening cyclone northeastward
  across central Alabama, northwestern Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia
  and Maryland before the center moved into the Atlantic around 1500 UTC
  on 8 July.  The final HPC advisory at 08/2100 UTC placed the remnants of
  Cindy about 50 nm northeast of Cape May, New Jersey, moving northeast-
  ward at about 16 kts.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Cindy may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/ATLANTIC_NORTH/2005_03L_CINDY_BT.jpg>


  C. Meteorological Observations
  ------------------------------

     The city of New Orleans (the town, not the train) experienced wind
  gusts of 45-60 kts from Cindy.  Some 200,000 persons in the metropolitan
  area and in areas farther east lost power, some for two nights.  

     Following are storm rainfall totals gleaned from a comprehensive
  file sent to the author by David Roth of HPC.  (A special thanks to
  David for sending the information.)  The data are grouped by state,
  and a number plus a compass direction, e.g., 10NW, means that the
  observation was made 10 statute miles northwest of the given
  location.   Only storm totals >= 100 mm (3.94 inches) are given.


  LOCATION                   INCHES    MM
  =========================================

  ALABAMA
  -------
  
  MOBILE/BATES FIELD          6.53    165.9
  COFFEEVILLE 3W              5.53    140.5
  CAMDEN 10NW                 5.23    132.8
  THOMASVILLE                 4.89    124.2
  MALONE 4NNW                 4.69    119.1
  WHATLEY                     4.53    115.1
  ASHLAND 3ENE                4.27    108.5
  
  GEORGIA
  -------
  
  FAIRBURN 5E                 7.28    184.9
  WARESVILLE 1E               6.85    174.0
  LITHONIA 3ENE               6.38    162.1
  CONYERS 4W                  6.19    157.2
  LITHONIA 5NE                5.98    151.9
  SNELLVILLE 6S               5.44    138.2
  ATLANTA INTL ARPT           5.24    133.1
  SNELLVILLE 3SSE             4.95    125.7
  LAWRENCEVILLE 1SW           4.90    124.5
  FRANKLIN 9WNW               4.73    120.1
  DANIELSVILLE 6SW            4.72    119.9
  LAWRENCEVILLE 3N            4.70    119.4
  SUWANEE 3NNW                4.52    114.8
  MILSTEAD 3ESE               4.49    114.0
  DAHLONEGA 3E                4.40    111.8
  JEFFERSON 6S                4.39    111.5
  ATHENS MUNI ARPT            4.12    104.6
  MILSTEAD 5ENE               4.11    104.4
  WINTERVILLE                 4.09    103.9
  SNELLVILLE 5ESE             4.02    102.1
  CANTON                      4.01    101.9
  COVINGTON                   4.00    101.6
  WHITESBURG 3NNW             3.97    100.8
  
  LOUISIANA
  ---------
  
  GALLIANO                    8.01    203.5
  GRAND ISLE                  7.55    191.8
  SLIDELL                     6.30    160.0
  NEW ORLEANS 3SE             5.41    137.4
  SLIDELL 10SSW               4.38    111.3
  LAPLACE 5NE                 4.37    111.0
  
  MISSISSIPPI
  -----------
  
  WAVELAND                    7.39    187.7
  BAY ST LOUIS                7.05    179.1
  PASCAGOULA                  6.62    168.1
  GULFPORT-BILOXI             6.51    165.4
  VANCLEAVE 3SW               6.03    153.2
  THREE RIVERS                6.00    152.4
  GULFPORT                    5.85    148.6
  D'IBERVILLE 4N              5.50    139.7
  MERRILL                     5.47    138.9
  KILN 2S                     5.33    135.4
  KEESLER AFB/BILOXI          4.76    120.9
  PICAYUNE                    4.50    114.3
  PICAYUNE                    4.20    106.7
  BUCKATUNNA                  4.07    103.4
  
  NORTH CAROLINA
  --------------
  
  TRYON                       5.27    133.9
  RUTHERFORDTON 3N            4.23    107.4
  BLACK MOUNTAIN 10NNE        3.97    100.8
  HICKORY RGNL ARPT           3.96    100.6
  
  NEW YORK
  --------
  
  HARTSVILLE                  4.71    119.6
  
  PENNSYLVANIA
  ------------
  
  JOLIETT                     4.77    121.2
  
  SOUTH CAROLINA
  --------------
  
  TRAVELERS REST              5.33    135.4
  PENDLETON 4SE               5.25    133.4
  TRAVELERS REST 1S           5.10    129.5
  GREER                       4.68    118.9
  GREENVILLE DOWNTOWN ARPT    4.43    112.5
  GREENVILLE                  4.41    112.0
  HUNTS BRIDGE                4.21    106.9
  
  VIRGINIA
  --------
  
  WAYNESBORO 13SSW            6.17    156.7
  KEYESVILLE 2S               5.50    139.7
  STANLEY 7ENE                5.44    138.2
  BIG MEADOWS                 5.24    133.1
  WAYNESBORO 4SSW             4.96    126.0
  MADISON 14NNW               4.75    120.7
  MADISON 11WNW               4.68    118.9
  MOUNT JACKSON 7E            4.52    114.8
  WAYNESBORO 9S               4.40    111.8
  CASTLETON                   4.26    108.2
  MADISON                     4.25    108.0
  FRONT ROYAL 6ESE            4.16    105.7
  MADISON 19NW                4.16    105.7
  BOSTON                      4.05    102.9
  NELLYSFORD 4W               4.04    102.6
  FRONT ROYAL 1ESE            4.00    101.6
  STERLING                    3.95    100.3


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     Wind damage from Cindy was rather minor and typical of a strong
  tropical storm.  Probably there was some damage from localized flooding,
  but assessments are not complete at this time and estimates are not yet
  available.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                            HURRICANE DENNIS
                                 (TC-04)
                               5 - 13 July
                  ------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Hurricane Dennis was an amazing storm for its time of year.  When
  upgraded to tropical storm status and named at 1500 UTC on 5 July (only
  six hours after Tropical Storm Cindy had been named), Dennis became the
  earliest fourth tropical storm on record.  The previous earliest date
  for the season's fourth tropical storm was 7 July 1959, when Hurricane
  Cindy formed off the South Carolina coast.  (One of the earlier storms
  that year was unnamed at the time but later reclassified as a hurricane.)
  Dennis was the first Category 4 hurricane to form in the month of July
  since 1926, and for an eight-day period held the record as the most
  intense July hurricane on record at 130 kts.  That remarkable record
  was broken on 16 July when Hurricane Emily peaked at 135 kts.

     Hurricane Dennis also became the first major hurricane to strike
  eastern Cuba since Hurricane Flora in 1963, the strongest hurricane
  to strike Cuba since Hurricane Fox in 1952, and the strongest hurricane
  ever to strike the island in the month of July.   After a weakening
  episode over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, Dennis re-intensified
  and once more reached Category 4 status in the north-central Gulf
  before weakening to a Category 3 hurricane and making landfall in the
  western Florida Panhandle.   The last time that a Category 3 hurricane
  made landfall in Northwest Florida in July was in 1936 near Ft. Walton
  Beach.

     A Tropical Weather Outlook issued by TPC/NHC at 1530 UTC on 3 July
  mentioned a well-defined tropical wave which was located a few hundred
  miles east of the Windward Islands, moving westward at 13 to 17 kts.
  Organization of this system continued through the 3rd and into the 4th
  of July.  Upper-level conditions were basically favorable for further
  intensification as the system neared the eastern Caribbean Sea.  By
  afternoon a broad surface low-pressure system had formed over the
  Windward Islands.  During the evening St. Lucia reported a wind of
  31 kts, so based on this and also on satellite intensity estimates,
  advisories were initiated at 05/0300 UTC on Tropical Depression 04,
  located about 85 nm west-northwest of the island of Grenada.  The
  depression was then moving west-northwestward at 15 kts with the MSW
  estimated at 25 kts.


  B. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     As TD-04 continued its west-northwestward march across the south-
  eastern Caribbean Sea, its satellite signature continued to improve
  with banding features becoming better defined.   The depression was
  upgraded to Tropical Storm Dennis at 1500 UTC on 5 July when located
  about 300 nm south of San Juan, Puerto Rico.  The basis for the upgrade
  was improved banding features and a Dvorak classification of T2.5 from
  TAFB.   The newly-christened tropical storm continued its trek across
  the central Caribbean, guided by a strong subtropical ridge to the
  north.   By early on the 6th Dennis was exhibiting an impressive cloud
  pattern with several cyclonically-curved convective bands and a
  well-established outflow in all quadrants.  The shear was low and the
  ocean warm, so steady intensification seemed inevitable.  Dennis was
  upgraded to the season's first hurricane in a special advisory package
  issued at 06/2200 UTC.  A reconnaissance plane had found 79-kt winds at
  700-mb with a CP of 985 mb.   At the time Dennis was located about
  275 nm east-southeast of Kingston, Jamaica, and was still moving west-
  northwestward at 12 kts.

     Dennis continued to intensify, reaching Category 2 status on the
  Saffir/Simpson Scale at 1200 UTC on 7 July.   By 1800 UTC the eye of
  Dennis was passing just northeast of Jamaica with 95-kt winds, and
  at 2100 UTC the season's first major hurricane was located only 80 nm
  southeast of Cuba's Cabo Cruz and about 110 nm southwest of Guantanamo
  Bay.  The MSW was estimated at 100 kts, and data from a Hurricane
  Hunters aircraft indicated that the CP had fallen at a rate of slightly
  over 1 mb per hour since early morning to 957 mb.  At this point Dennis
  became the first July major hurricane (Category 3 or higher) in the 
  Atlantic since Hurricane Bertha in 1996.      During the evening a
  reconnaissance aircraft found that the pressure had dropped further to 
  951 mb with a peak FLW of 134 kts measured at 700-mb in the northeastern 
  eyewall.  Based on this, Dennis was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane 
  with 115-kt winds just as the center neared Cabo Cruz around 08/0300 UTC.

     After delivering a glancing blow to the Cabo Cruz area, dangerous
  Hurricane Dennis continued on a by now northwesterly track toward the
  south-central coast of Cuba as it strengthened further.  Around 1500 UTC
  on 8 July Dennis reached its peak intensity of 130 kts with a CP of
  937 mb.   The Hurricane Hunters had found a 700-mb FLW of 150 kts in
  the eastern quadrant at 1325 UTC.  Thus, Dennis became stronger than
  any July hurricane currently in the Best Tracks database, but was
  destined to hold that distinction for only eight days.   Weakening
  slightly, Hurricane Dennis made landfall near Cienfuegos, Cuba, around
  1800 UTC with the MSW estimated at 125 kts.  A wind gust of 130 kts
  was reported at Cienfuegos.   The northwesterly track which Dennis was
  following at landfall, which was aiming the storm right at Key West,
  bent a little to the west-northwest, keeping the storm's center inland
  over Cuba for a longer period of time than initially forecast.

     Dennis weakened to Category 2 status while located over the large
  island.  The eye of Dennis passed very near the capital city of Havana
  shortly before 0500 UTC on 9 July as it moved back over water in the
  Straits of Florida.   An intermediate bulletin at this time placed the
  center just north of Havana or about 85 nm south-southwest of Key West.
  The MSW at that time was estimated at 95 kts, but the first aircraft
  into the storm after it had cleared Cuba found that it had weakened
  more than thought.  A 12-nm diameter eye was present and the minimum
  pressure was 972 mb, but the highest FLW reported by the plane before
  the 0900 UTC advisory was released was only 71 kts.  Following the
  assumption that the entire wind field had not been sampled, the MSW
  was set to 80 kts, and the forecaster commented that this might be
  very generous.

     However, Hurricane Dennis began to reorganize fairly rapidly after
  it had spent a few hours over the very warm waters of the southeastern
  Gulf of Mexico.  The storm had regained Category 2 status by 1100 UTC and
  continued to steadily strengthen throughout much of the 9th.  However, 
  during the late afternoon the bottom literally fell out of the barometer 
  as the CP was observed to drop 11 mb in 1.5 hours!  The peak FLW reported
  by a reconnaissance flight around that time was 105 kts, but it was 
  assumed that stronger winds were occurring in the northeastern quadrant 
  which had not yet been sampled by the aircraft.   Dennis was re-upgraded 
  to Category 3 status in a special advisory issued at 2300 UTC.  The
  center was then located about 245 nm south of Panama City, Florida, and
  moving northwestward at about 12 kts.

     The intensification continued through the night, and Dennis was
  upgraded to Category 4 status once more at 10/0500 UTC with the CP
  having fallen to 937 mb.   Around 0630 UTC a reconnaissance aircraft
  found peak FLWs of 139 and 140 kts at 700-mb during a couple of passes
  through the northeastern eyewall.  Based on this, the MSW was increased
  to a secondary peak of 125 kts in the 0700 UTC intermediate bulletin.
  The CP found on that mission was 934 mb, and it continued to fall for a 
  few more hours.  At 1143 UTC a plane measured (by extrapolation) a 
  pressure of 930 mb, which was the lowest CP measured during Dennis' 
  history.  Following the early morning (local time) peak in intensity, 
  Dennis' intensity began to slowly decrease, possibly due to slightly 
  cooler SSTs in its path as the hurricane approached the Florida
  Panhandle.

     During the mid-morning of the 10th, Dennis made an unexpected north-
  ward wobble, but by 1500 UTC had returned to the north-northwestward
  heading it had been following since the early morning hours.  At that
  hour the eye of Hurricane Dennis was located about 70 nm south-southeast
  of Pensacola, and the MSW had dropped slightly to 120 kts, based on a
  peak FLW of 131 kts on the most recent pass through the storm by the
  Hurricane Hunters.   TPC/NHC was issuing intermediate bulletins every
  two hours, and each subsequent bulletin brought about a reduction in
  Dennis' intensity.   At 10/1700 UTC the MSW was reduced slightly to
  115 kts--still a Category 4 hurricane--but at 1900 UTC Dennis was
  downgraded to a Category 3 hurricane with 105-kt winds.  The eye at
  that time was almost onshore, being centered only about 15 nm east-
  southeast of Pensacola and moving just west of due north at 15 kts.

     The center of Hurricane Dennis made landfall in northwestern Florida
  just east of Pensacola around 3:00 pm local time (2000 UTC) with the
  MSW estimated at 105 kts and with a CP of 943 mb.  A Florida Coastal
  Monitoring Program tower, located on the coast near Navarre Beach,
  reported sustained winds of 86 kts with gusts to 105 kts near the time
  of landfall.  (The elevation of the anemometer is unknown to the author.)
  By the regular advisory time of 2100 UTC the hurricane was inland about
  30 km north of Pensacola and moving further inland at 19 kts.  The MSW
  had dropped to 90 kts and further weakening was forecast.   Dennis
  continued moving north-northwestward across southwestern Alabama, and
  was downgraded to a 50-kt tropical storm at 11/0100 UTC while centered
  just northeast of Jackson, Alabama.   The cyclone was further downgraded
  to tropical depression status at 11/0900 UTC while located about 65 km
  west of Tuscaloosa, Alabama.   HPC assumed responsibility for issuing
  advisories at this time, and the slowly-weakening depression was tracked
  for a couple of days across northeastern Mississippi, western Tennessee
  and Kentucky and into the lower Ohio Valley where it stalled and
  gradually lost tropical characteristics.

     A graphic displaying the track of Hurricane Dennis may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/ATLANTIC_NORTH/2005_04L_DENNIS.jpg>


  C. Rainfall Observations
  ------------------------

     Following are storm rainfall totals gleaned from a comprehensive
  file sent to the author by David Roth of HPC.  (A special thanks to
  David for sending the information.)  The data are grouped by state,
  and a number plus a compass direction, e.g., 10NW, means that the
  observation was made 10 statute miles northwest of the given
  location.   Only storm totals >= 100 mm (3.94 inches) are given.


  LOCATION                 INCHES     MM
  ========================================
  
  ALABAMA
  -------

  CAMDEN 10NW               12.80    325.1
  ALBERTA                    7.97    202.4
  EUTAW 5SSE                 7.90    200.7
  EVERGREEN                  7.78    197.6
  JASPER                     7.65    194.3
  THOMASVILLE                7.61    193.3
  GAINESVILLE 1NE            7.36    186.9
  LEEDS                      7.32    185.9
  BILLINGSLEY 3NE            6.90    175.3
  JACKSON 2N                 6.85    174.0
  COLUMBIA 2S                6.62    168.1
  WEST BLOCTON               6.60    167.6
  JEMISON 4W                 6.15    156.2
  THOMASVILLE 3S             6.12    155.4
  CORDOVA                    6.09    154.7
  DEMOPOLIS 4W               6.01    152.7
  SELMA                      5.85    148.6
  CLANTON                    5.79    147.1
  SAMANTHA 4N                5.64    143.3
  GENEVA                     5.63    143.0
  CAIRNS AAF/OZARK           5.55    141.0
  LIVINGSTON                 5.49    139.4
  CAMDEN 13E                 5.42    137.7
  ADDISON                    5.36    136.1
  ALICEVILLE 10NW            5.34    135.6
  SAYRE                      5.34    135.6
  TROY MUNI ARPT             5.28    134.1
  FORESTDALE 2NE             5.24    133.1
  CENTREVILLE 6SW            5.09    129.3
  TUSCALOOSA MUNI ARPT       5.08    129.0
  TRUSSVILLE                 5.08    129.0
  HAYNEVILLE 15NW            5.05    128.3
  THEODORE 3S                4.98    126.5
  MOBILE/BATES FIELD         4.97    126.2
  TUSCALOOSA 10ENE           4.86    123.4
  ARKADELPHIA 7WNW           4.74    120.4
  ALABASTER/SHELBY CO. ARPT  4.72    119.9
  USFS TALLADEGA             4.69    119.1
  HUNTSVILLE                 4.58    116.3
  THORSBY 3ESE               4.54    115.3
  BIRMINGHAM                 4.46    113.3
  BIRMINGHAM                 4.41    112.0
  SEMMES 5SW                 4.36    110.7
  HUNTSVILLE                 4.32    109.7
  PLANTERSVILLE 2SSE         4.28    108.7
  MALONE 4NNW                4.23    107.4
  SILVERHILL 3W              4.16    105.7
  BIRMINGHAM MUNI ARPT       4.16    105.7
  WRIGHT                     4.15    105.4
  COFFEEVILLE 3W             3.97    100.8
  
  ARKANSAS
  --------
  
  ST FRANCIS                 4.35    110.5
  BLYTHEVILLE AIRPORT        4.25    108.0
  MANILA 8NNE                4.24    107.7
  CORNING                    4.04    102.6
  
  FLORIDA
  -------
  
  BRISTOL 2S                 9.14    232.2
  TALLAHASSEE RGNL ARPT      8.20    208.3
  CHATTAHOOCHEE 2W           7.60    193.0
  MONTICELLO 1NNE            7.03    178.6
  PERRINE 5WSW               6.96    176.8
  ST MARKS 4ESE              6.91    175.5
  BAKER 4NW                  6.65    168.9
  CHIEFLAND 13SW             6.53    165.9
  VALPARAISO/EGLIN AFB       6.52    165.6
  MILLIGAN                   6.37    161.8
  KEY WEST INTL ARPT         5.81    147.6
  FORT MYERS/PAGE FIELD      5.78    146.8
  HAVANA 5SSE                5.41    137.4
  QUINCY 3SSW                5.39    136.9
  MADISON 14ESE              5.22    132.6
  DOWLING PARK               5.22    132.6
  MARIANNA 1E                5.20    132.1
  RICHMOND HEIGHTS 13W       5.11    129.8
  HOLLYWOOD                  5.05    128.3
  PENSACOLA RGNL ARPT        5.03    127.8
  BLOXHAM 1WSW               4.71    119.6
  NORTH PORT 6NNE            4.71    119.6
  LURAVILLE                  4.65    118.1
  CLEWISTON 29S              4.65    118.1
  DESTIN AIRPORT             4.64    117.9
  BRUCE 4SE                  4.59    116.6
  LEHIGH ACRES 9NNW          4.54    115.3
  CRESTVIEW/BOB SIKES        4.51    114.6
  PLANTATION                 4.49    114.0
  IMMOKALEE 17SSE            4.48    113.8
  MIRAMAR 17WNW              4.47    113.5
  PUNTA GORDA                4.44    112.8
  CAROL CITY 12W             4.30    109.2
  MOLINO 6SE                 4.23    107.4
  ARCADIA 12SSE              4.21    106.9
  SWEETWATER 14WSW           4.20    106.7
  NOCATEE                    4.14    105.2
  JACKSONVILLE NAS           4.13    104.9
  IMMOKALEE 30SSE            4.09    103.9
  FORT LAUDERDALE 25WNW      4.08    103.6
  SWEETWATER 14NW            4.07    103.4
  MACCLENNY 4W               4.04    102.6
  ARCADIA 9NNE               3.97    100.8
  MARCO                      3.96    100.6
  
  GEORGIA
  -------
  
  DOBBINS AFB/MARIETTA      12.61    320.3
  CANTON                    11.87    301.5
  MABLETON 2E               10.84    275.3
  LITHIA SPRINGS 3ESE       10.66    270.8
  ATLANTA/FULTON CO. ARPT   10.57    268.5
  BUENA VISTA               10.32    262.1
  SANDY CREEK AT ATLANTA    10.25    260.4
  THOMASTON 2S              10.08    256.0
  DALLAS 3NE                 9.53    242.1
  PEACHTREE CITY             9.48    240.8
  CARTERSVILLE 4E            9.45    240.0
  AMERICUS 3SW               9.29    236.0
  MABLETON                   9.27    235.5
  PROCTOR CREEK AT ATLANTA   9.14    232.2
  WOODSTOCK 3SSW             8.90    226.1
  CARTERSVILLE 3E            8.81    223.8
  DALLAS 7NE                 8.79    223.3
  CUMMING 1E                 8.63    219.2
  GRIFFIN                    8.46    214.9
  SYLVESTER 17NW             8.39    213.1
  SMYRNA                     8.23    209.0
  THOMASVILLE 5WNW           8.05    204.5
  ATLANTA/DEKALB             7.98    202.7
  CARROLLTON                 7.85    199.4
  WARWICK 2NW                7.83    198.9
  COLUMBUS 8SE               7.72    196.1
  ATLANTA                    7.66    194.6
  SANDERSVILLE               7.66    194.6
  MONTEZUMA                  7.58    192.5
  FAIRBURN 5E                7.53    191.3
  ATLANTA INTL ARPT          7.44    189.0
  MONTEZUMA 1WSW             7.42    188.5
  BALL GROUND 4NNW           7.42    188.5
  ORCHARD HILL 1W            7.40    188.0
  DAWSON                     7.40    188.0
  NORTH UTOY CRK AT ATLANTA  7.35    186.7
  CLEVELAND 5NNE             7.27    184.7
  GRIFFIN 5WNW               7.24    183.9
  WEST POINT 3N              7.23    183.6
  MARIETTA 6E                7.19    182.6
  JONESBORO                  7.12    180.8
  REIDSVILLE 3W              7.04    178.8
  BAINBRIDGE 9SW             7.02    178.3
  CARTERSVILLE               7.01    178.1
  QUITMAN 3N                 6.91    175.5
  SUCHES 4NW                 6.88    174.8
  ALPHARETTA 2SE             6.81    173.0
  CALHOUN 5N                 6.78    172.2
  ATLANTA                    6.75    171.5
  DORAVILLE 2NNE             6.74    171.2
  FAYETTEVILLE 5ESE          6.73    170.9
  ALPHARETTA 4SSW            6.70    170.2
  CISCO 5SE                  6.68    169.7
  PLAINS 2N                  6.68    169.7
  AMERICUS 14ESE             6.64    168.7
  ROSWELL 4SSW               6.64    168.7
  LUMPKIN 2SE                6.52    165.6
  BLAKELY 15SSW              6.50    165.1
  INTRENCHMENT CREEK NR ATL  6.43    163.3
  TALLULAH FALLS 1NE         6.41    162.8
  RICHLAND 7ESE              6.38    162.1
  BOLINGBROKE 6NE            6.37    161.8
  CHATSWORTH                 6.31    160.3
  AMERICUS 2WNW              6.30    160.0
  JASPER 10WNW               6.28    159.5
  NORCROSS 3SSW              6.27    159.3
  HURST 6SSW                 6.25    158.8
  LEESBURG 4NNE              6.19    157.2
  NEWTON 13WNW               6.18    157.0
  HELEN 7N                   6.17    156.7
  LEESBURG 2NNW              6.14    156.0
  JACKSON 7E                 6.12    155.4
  ELLIJAY 8NW                6.12    155.4
  DAWSON 11E                 6.07    154.2
  SENOIA 2NE                 6.06    153.9
  CHATSWORTH 3S              6.06    153.9
  WOODBURY                   6.00    152.4
  CHOESTOE                   5.94    150.9
  CAMILLA 2SW                5.92    150.4
  FAIRBURN 9NW               5.91    150.1
  NEWNAN 3WSW                5.89    149.6
  SUWANEE 3NNW               5.81    147.6
  ROSWELL 4SSW               5.81    147.6
  ATLANTA                    5.79    147.1
  NAHUNTA 6NE                5.75    146.1
  NORCROSS 3WNW              5.72    145.3
  MORGAN 1SE                 5.61    142.5
  DAHLONEGA 3E               5.59    142.0
  CARTERSVILLE AIRPORT       5.46    138.7
  CLARKESVILLE 12NE          5.44    138.2
  CARTERSVILLE               5.42    137.7
  PLAINS 4ESE                5.42    137.7
  HELEN                      5.42    137.7
  COLUMBUS                   5.38    136.7
  LEARY 5ENE                 5.27    133.9
  TALLULAH FALLS             5.24    133.1
  BUFORD 4WNW                5.23    132.8
  EDEN 2NW                   5.22    132.6
  CLAYTON 12ENE              5.21    132.3
  MACON                      5.20    132.1
  QUITMAN 6E                 5.14    130.6
  DAHLONEGA 4NNW             5.07    128.8
  CLAYTON 10WSW              5.04    128.0
  MOUNTAIN CITY 2N           5.00    127.0
  COLUMBUS METRO ARPT        5.00    127.0
  EATONTON 8SW               4.98    126.5
  ALBANY MUNI ARPT           4.95    125.7
  MORGAN 5NW                 4.91    124.7
  BYROMVILLE 1W              4.90    124.5
  MONTICELLO 2NNW            4.81    122.2
  CLAYTON 10W                4.80    121.9
  TIFTON 2ESE                4.75    120.7
  JASPER 12ENE               4.70    119.4
  ELLIJAY 8NNW               4.66    118.4
  WARSAW/DULUTH NR GA 120    4.55    115.6
  SNELLVILLE 5ESE            4.52    114.8
  JULIETTE                   4.48    113.8
  MILLEDGEVILLE              4.45    113.0
  COLUMBUS                   4.44    112.8
  CONYERS 7SSW               4.43    112.5
  CARTERSVILLE 12WSW         4.42    112.3
  MONROE                     4.40    111.8
  FORT BENNING (COLUMBUS)    4.39    111.5
  CAMILLA 3S                 4.37    111.0
  CLEVELAND                  4.31    109.5
  YONAH                      4.30    109.2
  CLEVELAND 9NNE             4.30    109.2
  SNELLVILLE 6S              4.29    109.0
  CALHOUN 8ENE               4.29    109.0
  SUWANEE 4WNW               4.29    109.0
  ADEL 2S                    4.29    109.0
  ELMODEL                    4.28    108.7
  LAWRENCEVILLE 3N           4.27    108.5
  LITHONIA 5NE               4.26    108.2
  NEWTON 11SW                4.22    107.2
  TITUS                      4.21    106.9
  CEDARTOWN 8SE              4.20    106.7
  LAWRENCEVILLE 6ESE         4.19    106.4
  ADEL 7W                    4.15    105.4
  BROOKLET 1WSW              4.11    104.4
  MCDONOUGH 5E               4.10    104.1
  AUGUSTA/DANIEL FIELD       4.08    103.6
  COLUMBUS 15NW              4.04    102.6
  STATENVILLE                4.04    102.6
  NASHVILLE 4N               4.04    102.6
  VALDOSTA RGNL ARPT         4.00    101.6
  CHATSWORTH 12SSE           4.00    101.6
  TIFTON 4NW                 4.00    101.6
  ADAIRSVILLE 5SE            3.99    101.3
  WEST POINT                 3.98    101.1
  CAMILLA 17WSW              3.95    100.3
  NORCROSS                   3.94    100.1
  METTER 1ESE                3.94    100.1
  
  ILLINOIS
  --------
  
  GRAND CHAIN                5.92    150.4
  CAIRO 3N                   5.14    130.6
  WATERLOO 1WSW              4.54    115.3
  CAIRO                      4.37    111.0
  CARBONDALE                 3.97    100.8
  
  INDIANA
  -------
  
  SHELBYVILLE MUNI ARPT      5.66    143.8
  CASTELTON 3S               4.77    121.2
  KNIGHTSTOWN                4.71    119.6
  
  KENTUCKY
  --------
  
  MAYFIELD 7N                5.11    129.8
  
  MARYLAND
  --------
  
  BALTIMORE/WASH INTL ARPT   3.94    100.1
  
  MICHIGAN
  --------
   
  RICHMOND 4NNW              4.07    103.4
  
  MISSOURI
  --------
  
  THOMPSON LANDING           8.99    228.3
  COMMERCE                   6.18    157.0
  WILLIAMSVILLE              5.86    148.8
  BLOOMFIELD                 5.68    144.3
  BIRDS POINT 11ENE          5.46    138.7
  WAPPAPELLO                 5.29    134.4
  BERNIE                     4.85    123.2
  FISK                       4.69    119.1
  CHESTERFIELD               4.61    117.1
  POPLAR BLUFF               4.46    113.3
  POPLAR BLUFF               4.40    111.8
  CLEARWATER DAM 5W          4.38    111.3
  DONIPHAN 4SE               4.33    110.0
  PATTERSON                  4.18    106.2
  ZALMA 4E                   4.14    105.2
  PORTAGEVILLE               4.13    104.9
  GREENVILLE                 4.10    104.1
  MALDEN                     4.06    103.1
  POPLAR BLUFF               3.98    101.1
  
  MISSISSIPPI
  -----------
  
  DAMASCUS 1SE               8.10    205.7
  CRAWFORD 5WSW              7.45    189.2
  TOOMSUBA 5SE               6.45    163.8
  MERIDIAN NAS/MCCAIN        6.28    159.5
  TOPTON                     6.18    157.0
  COLLINSVILLE 7SE           5.78    146.8
  MACON                      5.64    143.3
  COLUMBUS 4NW               5.42    137.7
  LOUISVILLE                 5.30    134.6
  STATE UNIVERSITY           5.26    133.6
  WALNUT GROVE 1S            5.02    127.5
  VAIDEN 1SSW                4.91    124.7
  COLUMBUS 2NE               4.72    119.9
  ACKERMAN 3SE               4.71    119.6
  MERIDIAN                   4.70    119.4
  EUPORA 2E                  4.69    119.1
  HICKORY FLAT               4.51    114.6
  CRANDALL 8N                4.47    113.5
  BALDWYN 2S                 4.38    111.3
  MIZE                       4.36    110.7
  BUCKATUNNA                 4.32    109.7
  SHUBUTA                    4.30    109.2
  CARTHAGE 3SW               4.26    108.2
  TUPELO                     4.24    107.7
  CHUNKY 1E                  4.20    106.7
  MACON 3N                   4.10    104.1
  MERIDIAN/KEY FIELD         4.09    103.9
  COLUMBUS AFB               4.08    103.6
  ENTERPRISE                 4.04    102.6
  GOLDEN TRIANGLE RGNL ARPT  4.03    102.4
  
  NORTH CAROLINA
  --------------
  
  BLACK MOUNTAIN 10NNE       8.98    228.1
  HIGHLAND                   7.19    182.6
  YANCY                      7.02    178.3
  ROSMAN                     6.87    174.5
  LAKE TOXAWAY 2SW           6.80    172.7
  ROCKY MOUNT 1NNE           6.36    161.5
  TRIPLETT                   5.04    128.0
  ASHEVILLE MUNI ARPT        4.44    112.8
  HOT SPRINGS                4.11    104.4
  HAYESVILLE 3SE             4.01    101.9
  
  NEW YORK
  --------
  
  CATSKILL 6SW               6.27    159.3
  KINGSTON 1N                4.80    121.9
  ARKPORT 1W                 4.77    121.2
  GOUVERNEUR                 4.18    106.2
  
  OHIO
  ----
  
  COLERAIN 2N                4.51    114.6
  SPENCER 1E                 4.35    110.5
  DEERSVILLE 4E              4.12    104.6
  ELMORE 5E                  3.95    100.3
  
  PENNSYLVANIA
  ------------
  
  READING/SPAATZ FIELD       4.62    117.3
  JOLIETT                    4.50    114.3
  BETHEL                     4.40    111.8
  HANOVER 5SSW               4.39    111.5
  DOYLESTOWN                 3.94    100.1
  
  SOUTH CAROLINA
  --------------
  
  JAMESTOWN 2NE              4.06    103.1
  CALHOUN FALLS              3.96    100.6
  
  TENNESSEE
  ---------
  
  MCDONALD                   6.01    152.7
  DAYTON                     5.67    144.0
  PETROS                     5.66    143.8
  OAK RIDGE                  5.59    142.0
  LANCING 6NW                5.36    136.1
  LANCASTER                  5.32    135.1
  OBION 2SW                  5.20    132.1
  LANCASTER 2SSE             5.19    131.8
  FAIRVIEW                   5.10    129.5
  MONTEREY                   4.99    126.7
  MILLEDGEVILLE              4.83    122.7
  COOKEVILLE                 4.76    120.9
  MONTEREY                   4.59    116.6
  MCKENZIE 5S                4.51    114.6
  WARTBURG                   4.29    109.0
  JAMESTOWN 1WNW             4.22    107.2
  COLUMBIA                   4.21    106.9
  SAMBURG                    4.07    103.4
  BOGOTA                     3.96    100.6
  
  VIRGINIA
  ---------
  
  MONTEBELLO 3NE             5.08    129.0
  WAYNESBORO 13SSW           4.86    123.4
  WAYNESBORO 4SSW            4.46    113.3
  LOVINGSTON 7NW             4.12    104.6
  HILTON                     4.02    102.1

     In addiiton, I have one 24-hour total from Jamaica sent by Huang
  Chunliang.  Kingston/Norman Manley (WMO 78397, 17.9N/76.8W) measured
  170.9 mm (6.73 inches) between 07/0000 and 08/0000 UTC.


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     Hurricane Dennis left a trail of death and destruction across the
  Caribbean.  The highest death toll located by the author was 71, with
  damage estimates between $5 and $9 billion.  About half of the damage
  total was in the Caribbean area.  In Haiti 44 deaths were reported
  with 16 occurring when a bridge collapsed as the storm brushed Haiti.
  Also in Haiti more than 100 persons were reported missing.

     In Cuba the death toll stands at 16 with an estimated $1.46 billion
  in damages.  In the areas of the island affected by Dennis about 85%
  of power lines were down, and there was extensive damage to the
  communications infrastructure.

     In the U. S. more than 680,000 customers were without power in four
  southern states, and insured losses were estimated at between $1.25
  and $2.5 billion.  Normally, the total damage figure is about twice
  that of insured losses, so total damages are likely to be somewhere
  between $2 and $5 billion.  There were 10 storm-related fatalities
  reported in the United States.

     Considerable storm surge-related damage occurred near St. Marks,
  Florida, well east of the landfall location.  Heavy rainfall and
  flooding occurred across much of Florida and extended well inland
  over portions of the southeastern United States.

     Following are some links where additional information on the effects
  of Hurricane Dennis may be found:

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Dennis>

     http://www.cnn.com/2005/WEATHER/07/08/tropical.weather/>

     http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4659163.stm>

     http://www.cubaxp.com/modules/bamagalerie3/viewcat-55.html>

     http://www.oxfam.ca/news/hurricane_dennis/july14update.htm>

     http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/fromthefield/222031/112299769583.htm>

    http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N08396076.htm>

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                             HURRICANE EMILY
                                 (TC-05)
                               11 - 21 July
                   -----------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Following closely on the heels of Hurricane Dennis, Hurricane Emily
  set a few records itself:

     (1) The earliest date for the fifth tropical storm of the season
         (12 July), the previous record being 23 July 1959 (Hurricane
         Debra)

     (2) The first occurrence of two Category 4 hurricanes in the month
         of July

     (3) The most intense July tropical cyclone on record (135 kts)

     (4) The first July hurricane on record to make two landfalls as a
         major hurricane in Mexico

     Forming in the central tropical Atlantic, Emily entered the south-
  eastern Caribbean Sea near Grenada, where it suddenly intensified into
  a hurricane.  The cyclone followed a path very similar to that taken
  by Dennis in the eastern and central Caribbean, but as it neared Jamaica
  took a more westerly course which eventually carried it across the
  Yucatan Peninsula near Cozumel and ultimately into northeastern Mexico.

     The first reference to the precursor of Emily in the Tropical Weather
  Outlooks from TPC/NHC was at 0930 UTC on 9 July.  A westward-moving
  tropical wave was located about halfway between Africa and the Lesser
  Antilles, and satellite images indicated that associated shower activity
  had become slightly better organized.   The wave very slowly continued
  to exhibit increased organization over the next couple of days.  Early
  on the 10th the system was located approximately 1130 nm east of the
  islands, and by late afternoon a well-defined low-pressure area had
  formed.     Conditions were noted as being favorable for a tropical
  depression to form during the night or next day.   The initial advisory
  on Tropical Depression 05 was issued at 0300 UTC on 11 July.  The center
  was located about 1100 nm east-southeast of the Lesser Antilles and was
  moving westward at about 10 kts with a MSW of 25 kts.


  B. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     The depression continued moving westward on 11 July through an
  environment of modest easterly shear.  Visible imagery during the morning
  revealed that it was not well-organized, with a broad circulation with
  possible smaller embedded swirls.  This situation persisted into the
  afternoon, and although Dvorak estimates from SAB and AFWA had reached
  35 kts by the time of the 2100 UTC advisory, the intensity remained at
  30 kts.  During the evening hours the convective pattern improved
  significantly, and an earlier exposed LLCC which had been observed
  rotating northward around the larger circulation had become wrapped into
  the center underneath a well-defined mid-level circulation center.
  Satellite intensity estimates were T2.5 from all three agencies, and
  a 3-hour objective T-number from UW-CIMSS was T3.0, so at 12/0300 UTC
  the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Emily with an initial
  intensity of 40 kts.  Emily was then located about 870 nm east-southeast
  of the Lesser Antilles, moving west-northwestward at about 11 kts.

     Tropical Storm Emily continued moving westward across the central
  tropical Atlantic as it slowly strengthened.   Late on the 12th the
  cyclone began tracking a tad south of due west.   At this stage most
  of the deep convection was over the western and southern portions of
  the circulation, not due to vertical shear, however, but rather to an
  intrusion of drier air in the northeastern quadrant.  The MSW was upped
  to 50 kts at 13/0300 UTC based on 45-kt estimates from TAFB and SAB at
  13/0000 UTC and a continued increase in the deep convection.  The first
  reconnaissance aircraft into Emily reached the storm during the morning
  of 13 July and found winds of 56-kts at 850 mb in the active convection 
  in the southeastern quadrant, and this with the cyclone moving westward 
  at almost 20 kts.  A later aircraft reported peak 850-mb winds of 62 kts
  while a dropsonde measured surface winds of 50 kts, so Emily's MSW
  remained at 50 kts for the time being.  At 2100 UTC on the 13th Emily's 
  center was located about 110 nm south of Barbados, or 115 nm east-
  southeast of Grenada.  The cyclone was then moving west at around 16 kts.
  By this time warnings were in effect for the southern Windward Islands, 
  and a tropical storm watch had been issued for the Netherlands Antilles'
  ABC islands.

     During the evening of 13 July Emily rapidly intensified into a
  hurricane.  Reconnaissance data showed that the center reformed to the
  northeast within the deep convection with the wind and pressure quickly
  responding.   Peak 850-mb FLWs of 79 kts were recorded, but a dropsonde
  just north of the center at 14/0100 UTC reported surface winds of 80 kts.
  Thus, Emily was upgraded to an upper-end Category 1 hurricane with an
  80-kt MSW at 14/0300 UTC while located only about 40 nm east-southeast
  of Grenada, which had been devastated by Hurricane Ivan in September of
  the previous year.   Observations from Grenada indicated that the center
  of Hurricane Emily passed over the island around 0700 UTC.  Once in the
  southeastern Caribbean Sea, Emily continued to strengthen.  By afternoon
  the cyclone had reached Category 3 on the Saffir/Simpson Scale with the
  MSW estimated at 100 kts.   Low-level dropsonde observations made at
  1525 and 1712 UTC had yielded surface-adjusted winds of 92 and 93 kts,
  but since that time the eye had become much more distinct and Dvorak
  ratings had increased by 0.5 to 1.0 T-number.  At 2100 UTC the center
  of dangerous Hurricane Emily was located approximately 385 nm southeast
  of Santo Domingo and moving west-northwestward at 18 kts.

     Emily continued to intensify, reaching Category 4 status at 15/0600
  UTC.  This was based on a reconnaissance 700-mb FLW of 128 kts in the
  northeastern quadrant at 0505 UTC with a measured CP of 952 mb.  The
  MSW was upped to 115 kts--the first of Emily's three peaks in intensity.
  During the morning of the 15th an Air Force plane found that Emily
  possessed concentric eyewalls of 8 and 25 nm, respectively.  In the
  1500 UTC discussion it was noted that the cloud pattern had
  deteriorated somewhat and the eye had disappeared in satellite imagery.
  The MSW was lowered to 110 kts, and the 2100 UTC advisory further reduced
  the intensity to 90 kts, making Emily a Category 2 hurricane.  Water
  vapor images showed a persistent large mid to upper-level LOW over the
  western Caribbean which was producing shear over the hurricane.  The
  hurricane was then centered about 305 nm southeast of Kingston, Jamaica.

     Most models were calling for the shear to abate, and this verified
  rather quickly.  In the intermediate bulletin issued at 16/0000 UTC
  Emily's MSW was raised to 100 kts, making the hurricane a Category 3
  storm once more.   And three hours later Emily had rebounded back to
  a 115-kt Category 4 hurricane.   At 15/1725 UTC the CP was 969 mb, but
  by 16/0220 UTC it had fallen to 954 mb.  The peak 700-mb FLW jumped
  from 108 kts to 128 kts in only a couple of hours.   Extremely dangerous
  Hurricane Emily sailed on past Jamaica early on the morning (local time)
  of 16 July, passing a little over 100 nm to the south.   By 1800 UTC
  Emily had reached its peak intensity of 135 kts, becoming the strongest
  July hurricane on record and on the threshold of Category 5 status.  The
  cyclone was then centered about 255 nm southeast of Grand Cayman and
  moving west-northwestward at 16 kts.  The intensity estimate was based
  on a CP of 937 mb around 1700 UTC with a peak 700-mb FLW of 151 kts in
  the northeastern quadrant.

     A subsequent reconnaissance mission into the storm during the evening
  found that the pressure had fallen further to 929 mb, but the peak FLW
  was 149 kts, so the decision was made not to upgrade Emily to Category 5
  status.   A few hours later, at 17/0324 UTC, the Hurricane Hunters found
  a FLW of 153 kts, which would support 138 kts at the surface, but at the
  time the pressure was rising rapidly and on the next pass through the
  northeastern quadrant the peak wind found was only 132 kts.  The 0900 UTC
  discussion, however, did remark that Emily possibly briefly reached
  Category 5 status around 0300 UTC.   By 17/2100 UTC Emily's center was
  located approximately 115 nm southeast of Cozumel, Mexico.  The MSW had
  dropped to 125 kts and continued to slowly fall as the dangerous cyclone
  neared the Yucatan coastline.  The MSW was reduced to 115 kts in the
  intermediate bulletin at 18/0000 UTC, and remained at that value until
  landfall occurred around 0630 UTC.   A reconnaissance plane reported a
  peak 700-mb FLW of 134 kts at 18/0018 UTC, which would support 120 kts
  at the surface, but the CP had been rising steadily and was up to 955 mb.
  However, on a pass through the hurricane at 0322 UTC a FLW of 141 kts
  was measured, so it appears that Emily did maintain Category 4 intensity
  up until landfall.  The eye of the hurricane passed over the southern
  end of Isla de Cozumel and thence inland just north of Tulum around 0630
  UTC.

     By 1500 UTC on the 18th Emily's center was back over water in the
  southern Gulf of Mexico about 500 nm east-southeast of Brownsville,
  Texas.  Convection had decreased while the hurricane was crossing the
  relatively flat Yucatan Peninsula, but the cloud pattern was still quite
  well-organized.  The intensity was estimated at 85 kts, but this was
  lowered to minimal hurricane intensity of 65 kts in the 1800 UTC inter-
  mediate bulletin, based on a CP of 984 mb and surface winds of 65 kts
  measured by a SFMR.  However, Emily displayed several cyclonically
  curved convective bands wrapping around the LLCC with fair outflow,
  so re-strengthening was forecast.   This re-intensification was not long
  in coming--a reconnaissance plane during the early evening found a peak
  FLW of 90 kts, so the MSW was upped to 80 kts in the 19/0300 UTC
  advisory.  The center of Emily at this time was located approximately
  350 nm east-southeast of Brownsville, moving west-northwestward at
  13 kts.

     Hurricane Emily slowly became better organized as the 19th progressed.
  The winds, however, were a little slow to respond to the drop in central
  pressure.  By 19/2100 UTC the pressure had fallen to 956 mb, a drop of
  14 mb in 4 hours, but the maximum FLW had only increased to 96 kts at
  1939 UTC, supporting a surface MSW of 85 kts.   However, at 2126 UTC a
  plane found a peak FLW of 122 kts, so the MSW was increased to 110 kts
  in a special advisory issued at 2300 UTC.   This made Emily a Category 3
  hurricane once more, located about 115 nm southeast of Brownsville,
  moving toward the west-northwest at 10 kts.  Emily's radar presentation
  was impressive, with a 17-nm wide eye and a well-defined inner eyewall
  surrounded by a concentric band at a radius of 35 nm.  Emily's CP fell
  to the 943-945 mb range and remained there until landfall around 1100
  UTC on 20 July along the Mexican coast about 65 nm south of Brownsville.
  Data from the Brownsville WSR-88D Doppler radar indicated velocities that
  supported 110 kts right at landfall with approximate surface wind
  estimates along the coast of 100 kts right up until about 1330 UTC, after
  Emily had moved inland.

     Once inland Emily began to weaken rapidly.  Doppler radar velocities
  supported 70 kts at 1800 UTC, but by 20/2100 UTC the intensity had been
  lowered to 60 kts and Emily was downgraded to a tropical storm while
  located about 130 km southeast of Monterrey, Mexico, and 95 miles south-
  west of McAllen, Texas.   The decaying storm was moving westward at
  around 10 kts.  By 21/0900 UTC Emily's center had reached the Sierra
  Madre mountains and satellite imagery showed a significant decay of the
  convective structure.  At this juncture Emily was downgraded to a 30-kt
  tropical depression.  Surface observations from Mexico suggested that the
  LLCC subsequently slowed down considerably along the eastern slopes of
  the mountains while the mid to upper-level circulation continued west-
  ward.  By 1500 UTC peak surface winds had decreased to only 25 kts and
  the final TPC/NHC advisory was issued, placing the center approximately
  55 km south-southeast of Saltillo, Mexico.  Nonetheless, radar imagery
  from Brownsville indicated a persistent band of thunderstorms lying
  across the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madres, rendering it possible
  for heavy rainfall to continue for some time due to deep, moist tropical
  air being advected in from the Gulf and flowing upslope toward the
  mountains.

     A graphic depicting the track of Hurricane Emily may be found at the
  following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/ATLANTIC_NORTH/2005_05L_EMILY.jpg>


  C. Meteorological Observations
  ------------------------------

     Following are storm rainfall totals gleaned from a comprehensive
  file sent to the author by David Roth of HPC.  (A special thanks to
  David for sending the information.)  The first group of observations
  are from Texas, and the second from the Mexican states of Tamaulipas
  (TAMS) and Nuevo Leon (NL).  A number plus a compass direction,
  e.g., 10NW, means that the observation was made 10 statute miles north-
  west of the given location.  Only storm totals >= 100 mm (3.94 inches)
  are given.

  (1) Texas
  ---------

  LOCATION                 INCHES     MM
  ========================================

  MERCEDES 6SSE	            5.20     132.1
  PHARR 8SE	            4.64     117.9
  MC ALLEN/MILLER INT APT   4.26     108.2
  PROGRESO	            4.22     107.2
  ZAPATA 3SW	            4.20     106.7
  MCALLEN	            4.03     102.4

  (2) Mexico
  ----------

  LOCATION                STATE   INCHES         MM
  ===================================================

  CERRALVO	           NL	   16.10	409.0
  VALLE HERMOSO	           TAMS	   15.90	403.8
  LOS ALDAMAS	           NL	   13.46	341.9
  LA BOCA	           NL	   13.19	335.0
  CERRO PRIETO	           NL	   12.11	307.5
  MATAMOROS	           TAMS	   11.18	284.0
  EL CUCHILLO	           NL	   11.00	279.5
  P VICENTE GUERRERO	   TAMS	   10.45	265.4
  CABEZONES	           NL	    9.90	251.5
  MONTERREY	           NL	    9.89	251.1
  OBSERVATORIO MONTERREY   NL	    9.80	249.0
  CAMACHO	           NL	    8.98	228.0
  RIO  BRAVO               TAMS     8.85        224.7
  LAS ENRAMADAS	           NL	    8.41	213.5
  DIAZ ORDAZ               TAMS     7.90        200.7
  REYNOSA	           TAMS	    7.80	198.1
  EL CANADA                NL       7.64        194.0
  CIENEGA DE FLORES        NL       6.99        177.5
  CADEREYTA	           NL	    6.56	166.5
  SAN FERNANDO	           TAMS	    6.41	162.8
  MAGUEYES	           TAMS	    6.12	155.5
  ABASOLO	           TAMS	    5.93	150.7
  CAMARGO	           TAMS	    5.61	142.4
  SOTO LA MARINA	   TAMS     5.53	140.5
  CONTROL	           TAMS	    5.27	133.8
  PILON	                   TAMS     4.60	116.9
  CORONA	           TAMS	    4.52	114.9
  TOMA SUR	           TAMS	    4.50	114.3
  BARRETAL	           TAMS	    4.02	102.0


     Following are a few 24-hour totals from Jamaica and Trinidad sent
  to the author by Huang Chunliang:

  (3) Jamaica
  -----------

  MONTEGO BAY/SANGSTER (WMO78388,18.5N/77.9W) [16/06-17/06Z]  101.2 mm

  MONTEGO BAY/SANGSTER (WMO78388,18.5N/77.9W) [16/12-17/12Z]  101.2 mm 

  (4) Trinidad
  ------------

  PIARCO INTL AIRPORT (WMO78970,10.6N/61.4W) [13/12-14/12Z]  115.5 mm


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     On Grenada Hurricane Emily was responsible for one fatality while
  estimates of damage ranged from $110 to $200 million in U. S. dollars.
  Emily only added insult to injury to the island which is still struggling
  to recover from the extremely devastating blow dealt by Hurricane Ivan
  in September, 2004.

     Although Jamaica was spared a direct strike by the intense cyclone,
  landslides caused by heavy rainfall left four persons dead on the
  island.

     Press reports indicated that at least 10 persons died across the
  Caribbean region as a result of Hurricane Emily.

     Along Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, tens of thousands of tourists
  and residents were evacuated from beach resorts in and around Cancun,
  Riviera Maya and Cozumel.  The damage in the Yucatan area was estimated
  at US$25 million, while the total damage sustained in Mexico was placed
  at around US$200 million.

     Following are some links where additional information on the effects
  of Hurricane Emily may be found:

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Emily>

     http://www.ifrc.org/docs/News/05/05071501/index.asp>

     http://www.cdera.org/cunews/news/saint_lucia/article_1218.php>

     http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4693945.stm>

     http://www.freep.com/features/travel/cancun31e_20050731.htm>

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                         TROPICAL STORM FRANKLIN
                                 (TC-06)
                              21 - 31 July
               -------------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Franklin was not particularly distinguished--the storm, not the
  forecaster of the same name.  (Sorry James, but I just couldn't resist
  throwing that in!)   Franklin was remarkable in one respect--it became
  the earliest sixth tropical storm of the season (the previous record
  being 4 August 1936) and the first sixth storm of the season to ever
  form in the month of July.  The storm, however, did almost become a
  hurricane, and was rather long-lived as it moved slowly from its
  birthplace in the Bahamas northward to waters south of the Canadian
  Maritimes.

     A Tropical Weather Outlook issued by TPC/NHC at 2130 UTC on 19 July
  noted that a tropical wave over the eastern Caribbean Sea was producing
  cloudiness and showers over Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and the Leeward
  Islands.  At the time upper-level winds were unfavorable for tropical
  cyclone development and were forecast to remain so for the next couple
  of days.   However, by the next day upper-level winds were beginning
  to be less hostile and the potential for tropical cyclogenesis was 
  looking a little more likely.   On the morning of 21 July convection 
  became a little more concentrated just northeast of the southeastern 
  Bahamas, and by midday surface data, along with radar and satellite
  observations, suggested that a broad surface low-pressure area was 
  forming over the central Bahamas.

     A reconnaissance plane investigated the disturbance during the early
  afternoon and found that a tropical depression had developed with winds
  of 30 kts.  Advisories were initiated on Tropical Depression 06 at
  21/2100 UTC with the center located about 110 nm east of the northwestern
  Bahamas and moving west-northwestward at 11 kts.   As the evening
  progressed the depression continued to strengthen and a later
  reconnaissance mission into the system found that TD-06 had increased
  into a 40-kt tropical storm.  A special advisory package was issued at
  22/0000 UTC to upgrade the depression to Tropical Storm Franklin.  The
  center of Franklin was then located about 45 nm east-northeast of the
  island of Eleuthera, moving northwestward at about 12 kts. 


  B. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     By 0600 UTC on 22 July the center of Tropical Storm Franklin had
  moved to very near the eastern coastline of Great Abaco Island in the
  Bahamas chain.  The storm continued northwestward, crossing the northern
  portion of the island before turning to the north around 1800 UTC and
  pulling away from the Bahamas.   Franklin was initially located under
  an upper-level cyclonic shear axis which slowed intensification.  By
  1500 UTC on the 22nd the convective appearance had improved and the
  MSW was bumped up to 45 kts.   However, some dry air soon got wrapped
  up into the eastern side and into the center, which once again halted the
  intensification process.    A dropsonde released into the cyclone at 
  1337 UTC on 23 July measured a surface wind of 59 kts in the southeastern
  quadrant where the flight crew had been estimating 60 to 65-kt winds.  
  Based on this the MSW was increased to 60 kts--the peak intensity for
  Franklin.  The CP was above 1000 mb, but the storm was embedded in a 
  region of higher-than-normal ambient surface pressures.

     At the time it reached peak intensity, the center of Tropical Storm
  Franklin was located about 210 nm north-northeast of Great Abaco Island
  or 550 nm west-southwest of Bermuda.  The cyclone was then moving north-
  eastward near 8 kts in fairly light west-northwesterly mid-level flow
  south of a strong shortwave trough approaching the U. S. East Coast.
  By late on the 23rd microwave imagery showed that the low and mid-level
  circulation centers were becoming detached.  While there was a ring of
  deep convection resembling an eyewall indicating the existence of a
  well-defined mid-level circulation, cloud lines were showing a surface
  center displaced to the northeast.  Also, the cloud pattern in satellite
  imagery was less organized than earlier in the day.  Based on this, the
  MSW was reduced to 55 kts.  The approaching mid-latitude trough was
  beginning to bring increased shear, and the cyclone was destined to
  slowly weaken into a minimal tropical storm over the next couple of days.

     Tropical Storm Franklin moved slowly east-northeastward during the
  23rd and 24th as strong northwesterly shear took its toll on the cyclone.
  By the evening of the 24th the LLCC had become completely exposed.
  At the same time the east-northeasterly motion ceased and Franklin began
  to drift erratically approximately 350 nm west-southwest of Bermuda.
  The slowing of the storm's motion was likely due to a building low-level
  ridge north of Bermuda in the wake of the previous upper-level trough and
  cold front.  Franklin's MSW was reduced to 35 kts at 25/0600 UTC and for
  the most part remained there until 1200 UTC on the 27th.  While
  investigating the storm during the morning of the 25th, the Hurricane
  Hunters found that the CP was a little lower than previously thought, and
  based on dropsonde-derived wind profiles, the MSW was found to be near
  40 kts.  However, by the time of the 2100 UTC advisory the satellite
  presentation had deteriorated markedly so the MSW was left at 35 kts.
  (In the track for Franklin in the companion global cyclone tracks file, I
  assigned 40 kts for the MSW at 25/1200 UTC to reflect this.)

     By 0600 UTC on 26 July Franklin had embarked on a slow northeastward
  track--by 1800 UTC the cyclone was moving northward at 5 kts from a
  position about 185 nm west of Bermuda.  (As a precaution a Tropical Storm
  Watch was issued for Bermuda at 26/0300 UTC and remained in effect
  through 27/0900 UTC.)  Convection came and went, but by the afternoon
  of 26 July a band of deep convection with cloud tops of -70 to -80 C had
  developed to the south and east of the still-exposed LLCC.  Ship PIBO
  reported 31-kt winds at 1800 UTC while located about 220 nm southeast of
  Franklin's center, which during the 26th described a 30-nm wide counter-
  clockwise loop.   Shear analyses during the evening indicated that the
  shear was decreasing, and at 1500 UTC on 27 July the MSW was bumped up
  slightly to 40 kts, based on a QuikScat pass at 1017 UTC which indicated
  a few unflagged 40-kt vectors in the southern semicircle.  This was the
  beginning of a second round of intensification for Franklin which brought
  it back up to 50 kts before it began to weaken over cold North Atlantic
  waters.
  
     Franklin took a jog toward the north-northwest early on the 27th,
  but by late in the day the storm was moving northward.  Based on a Dvorak
  estimate of T3.0 from TAFB, the MSW was raised to 45 kts at 1800 UTC.
  The tropical storm began to turn toward the north-northeast early on the
  28th, and by 2100 UTC was moving northeastward at 15 kts from a position
  approximately 455 nm south-southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia.   The
  cyclone's convective signature had continued to improve, and with
  intensity estimates from TAFB and SAB fluctuating between 45 and 55 kts,
  the MSW was increased to a secondary peak of 50 kts.   Franklin by this
  time was accelerating under the influence of increasing deep-layer
  southwesterly steering flow ahead of an eastward-moving frontal system.

     Tropical Storm Franklin maintained a MSW of 50 kts for 18 hours, then
  began to rapidly weaken and lose tropical characteristics.  At 1500 UTC
  on 29 July the MSW was dropped to 45 kts.  The cyclone was then located
  about 210 nm south-southeast of Halifax and racing northeastward at
  19 kts.  By 2100 UTC the LLCC was becoming separated from the remaining
  small area of deep convection.   The cyclone was rapidly transforming
  into an extratropical system, and NHC issued their final advisory on
  Franklin at this time.   The MSW was estimated at 35 kts and the center
  was located approximately 340 nm southwest of Cape Race, Newfoundland,
  moving northeastward at 22 kts.   The extratropical remnant of Franklin
  passed about 60-80 nm south of Cape Race on 30 July and was absorbed by
  another extratropical gale on the 31st several hundred miles east of
  Newfoundland.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Franklin may be
  found at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/ATLANTIC_NORTH/2005_06L_FRANKLIN.jpg>


  C. Meteorological Observations
  ------------------------------

     Chris Fogarty indicated that one ship reported winds of 50 kts with
  9-metre seas, something which would only be possible if the wave field
  was moving with the storm--a trapped wave fetch.  Post-tropical Franklin,
  in conjunction with the moisture from a stalled frontal zone, was also
  responsible for between 15 and 35 mm of rain in southeastern Newfoundland
  with 20 mm falling in one hour at Terra Nova Park.  No gale-force winds
  were experienced in Newfoundland as Franklin's remnants sped by.


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     No reports of damage or casualties resulting from Tropical Storm
  Franklin have been received.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                          TROPICAL STORM GERT
                                (TC-07)
                             23 - 25 July
                ---------------------------------------

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Tropical Storm Franklin had become the earliest sixth tropical storm
  of the season when it formed near the Bahamas on 22 July--Gert became
  the earliest seventh storm just two days later.  The previous earliest
  date for the formation of the season's seventh tropical storm was on
  7 August 1936.  Like its late-June predecessor Tropical Storm Bret,
  Gert was a Bay of Campeche "one-day wonder", moving into Mexico about
  24 hours after being upgraded to tropical storm status.  Gert also
  forged a new record for the month of July--the first July on record
  to produce five tropical storms or hurricanes.  Several July's have
  seen the development of four storms (1966, 1995, 1997), but July, 2005,
  is the first July to produce five storms.

     Tropical Storm Gert was spawned by the southern extension of the
  same tropical wave which had led to the formation of Tropical Storm
  Franklin in the Bahamas.   After spawning Franklin, the wave continued
  to move westward across the northwestern Caribbean Sea and adjacent
  land areas.   This represents the first time two named tropical cyclones
  have formed from the same tropical wave since Tropical Storm Chris and
  Hurricane Debby in late August, 1988.  (This bit of information from
  David Roth and Todd Kimberlain.)

     The vigorous wave had reached the eastern coast of the Yucatan
  Peninsula by the afternoon of the 22nd and was producing a large area of
  cloudiness and thunderstorms over the northwestern Caribbean Sea, the
  southern Gulf of Mexico and adjacent land areas.  The possibility of a
  tropical depression forming in the Gulf of Mexico over the next day or
  two was noted.   The tropical wave was moving into the Bay of Campeche
  around midday on the 23rd but convection had temporarily diminished;
  hence, a scheduled reconnaissance flight into the system was cancelled.

     However, by early afternoon surface reports from Mexico and NOAA
  Buoy 42055 indicated that a broad surface low-pressure system had
  developed over the southern Bay of Campeche with increasing convection
  near the center.  A NOAA research aircraft was conducting flights in
  the area during the afternoon and found that a tropical depression
  was forming.  During the late afternoon NOAA Buoy 42055 reported a
  sustained wind of 23 kts about 150 nm north of the center while a
  dropsonde instrument just north of Merida reported a surface wind of
  30 kts.   This report was within the outflow of a cluster of land-based
  thunderstorms, but other nearby dropsonde reports indicated winds of
  30-35 kts at 925-850 mb, supporting an intensity of at least 25 kts.
  The first advisory on Tropical Depression 07 was issued at 2100 UTC
  on 23 July, placing the center about 255 nm east-southeast of Tampico,
  Mexico, moving slowly west-northwestward.


  B. Synoptic History
  -------------------

     Data from a NOAA reconnaissance plane during the evening indicated
  that the depression had a well-defined circulation with gusts of tropical
  storm strength.   Very early on 24 July data from a stepped-frequency
  microwave radiometer (SFMR) on board the plane indicated surface winds
  of 36 kts.  Hence, TD-07 was upgraded to Tropical Storm Gert in a special
  advisory at 24/0600 UTC.   Gert was then located about 170 nm east-
  southeast of Tuxpan, Mexico, moving west-northwestward at 9 kts.  A few
  hours later, however, dropsondes from a NOAA research aircraft indicated
  that a new LLCC had formed about 60 nm north of the previous track.  As
  the morning progressed it became apparent that Gert did not have one
  dominant center of circulation:  reconnaissance data indicated a broad
  area of light winds with a flat pressure gradient.  On board wind
  measurements suggested the possibility of multiple centers.

     The poorly-defined center of Tropical Storm Gert continued moving in
  a west-northwesterly direction, making landfall around 0000 UTC on
  25 July just south of Tampico.   Reports from NOAA and Hurricane Hunter
  aircraft, along with satellite imagery, indicated that Gert was starting
  to intensify as it made landfall.  Even though the center remained rather
  broad, the NOAA aircraft measured a peak FLW of 53 kts at 3350 metres at
  24/2053 UTC while the U. S. Air Force plane measured 47 kts at 850 mb
  on several occasions around 25/0000 UTC with the plane unable to
  quite reach the center.   Based on this, Gert's peak intensity at land-
  fall has been assessed at 40 kts.   Tropical Storm Gert predictably began
  to weaken rapidly after moving inland into Mexico.  The cyclone was down-
  graded to tropical depression status at 0900 UTC, and the final TPC/NHC
  advisory on Gert, at 25/1500 UTC, placed the dissipating center over
  the Sierra Madre Oriental range about 280 km west of Tampico.

     A graphic depicting the track of Tropical Storm Gert may be found at
  the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/ATLANTIC_NORTH/2005_07L_GERT.jpg>


  C. Meteorological Observations
  ------------------------------

     Huang Chunliang sent me a few 24-hour rainfall amounts from Mexico.
  Only amounts greater than 100 mm are listed:

  Location/State              WMO ID     Lat/Lon    Date/Time (Z) Rain (mm)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Tamuin, San Luis Potosi      -----   22.0N/98.8W  24/12-25/12    214.9
  Soto La Marina, Tamaulipas   76499   23.8N/98.2W  24/12-25/12    124.0
  Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas  76491   23.7N/99.1W  24/12-25/12    103.8
  Tamuin, San Luis Potosi      -----   22.0N/98.8W  25/00-26/00    103.5


  D. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     Even though Tropical Storm Gert brought fairly heavy rainfall to some
  locations in Mexico, apparently no widespread flooding resulted.  No
  reports of damage or casualties have been received.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for July:  2 tropical storms


                        Sources of Information
                        ----------------------

     Most of the information presented below was obtained from the
  various tropical cyclone products issued by the Tropical Prediction
  Center/National Hurricane Center (TPC/NHC) in Miami, Florida (or the
  Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) in Honolulu, Hawaii, for
  locations west of longitude 140W):  discussions, public advisories,
  forecast/advisories, tropical weather outlooks, special tropical
  disturbance statements, etc.  Some additional information may have
  been gleaned from the monthly summaries prepared by the hurricane
  specialists and available on TPC/NHC's website.  All references to
  sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period unless otherwise
  noted.


                Northeast Pacific Tropical Activity for July
                --------------------------------------------

     The month of July was extremely quiet in the Northeast Pacific Basin.
  Over the period 1971-2004, July has averaged 3.7 named storms, 2 hurri-
  canes, and 1 intense hurricane annually.  In July of 2005 there were
  only 2 short-lived tropical storms and no hurricanes, yielding a total
  of 3 named-storm days.  The average July sees 16 named-storm days.
  Minimal Tropical Storm Dora brushed the Mexican coastline near Zihua-
  tanejo while stronger Tropical Storm Eugene moved northwestward to a
  point a couple hundred miles southwest of Cabo San Lucas.   Short
  reports on both these cyclones follow.   Additional information may be
  available at the following link:

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_Pacific_hurricane_season>



                          TROPICAL STORM DORA
                                (TC-04E)
                               4 - 6 July
                ---------------------------------------

     The Eastern North Pacific's fourth tropical storm of the 2005 season
  had its roots in an area of disturbed weather which developed some
  200 nm south-southwest of the Gulf of Tehuantepec on 1 July.  Gradual
  development ensued as the system moved toward the west-northwest over
  the next couple of days.  By the evening of 3 July the disturbance
  had gained enough in organization to be classified as Tropical
  Depression 04E while located approximately 125 nm south of Acapulco,
  Mexico.  The depression continued moving toward the Mexican coast as
  its convective organization increased.  At 2100 UTC on 4 July the
  system was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dora, located about 90 nm south-
  east of Zihuatanejo, Mexico.  Dora continued moving northwestward and
  the center approached to within 35 nm of the coast near Zihuatanejo
  before turning west-northwestward and paralleling the coastline on
  5 July.

     The cyclone managed to hang onto minimal tropical storm intensity
  for almost 24 hours before weakening to a tropical depression at
  05/1800 UTC.  Moderate easterly shear plus interaction with the nearby
  landmass likely prevented Dora from strengthening initially, and as
  it pulled away from Mexico, it encountered cooler SSTs.  The system
  dissipated early on 7 July about 150 nm west-southwest of Manzanillo,
  Mexico.

     Acapulco (WMO 76805, 16.83N, 99.93W) recorded 110.2 mm of rainfall
  during the 24 hours from 04/0000 to 05/0000 UTC.  (This tidbit sent
  by Huang Chunliang.)

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Dora may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_EAST/2005_04E_DORA.jpg>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical 
  Storm Dora.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



                         TROPICAL STORM EUGENE
                                (TC-05E)
                              18 - 20 July
               -----------------------------------------

     Tropical Storm Eugene formed from a tropical wave on 18 July about
  220 nm south of Manzanillo, Mexico.   The first advisory was issued
  at 1500 UTC and upgraded the disturbance directly to Tropical Storm
  Eugene.  The cyclone moved generally northwestward well offshore and
  parallel to the Mexican coastline.  Eugene strengthened slowly at
  first, but by the early afternoon of the 19th banding features had
  improved markedly and the cyclone reached its peak intensity of 60 kts
  at 19/2100 UTC while located about 180 nm west-southwest of Cabo
  Corrientes or approximately 200 nm south-southeast of Cabo San Lucas
  on the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula.

     No sooner had Eugene reached its peak intensity, however, than it
  began to quickly weaken.  Banding features over the eastern and
  southern quadrants began to quickly dissipate and the center became
  partially-exposed to the southeast of the colder cloud tops.  The
  MSW remained at 60 kts for one more warning cycle, but then quickly
  began to decrease.  The effects of cooler SSTs and drier, stable air
  had reduced Eugene to a tropical depression by 1200 UTC on 20 July,
  and by late in the day had become a remnant LOW about 100 nm southwest
  of Cabo San Lucas.  The remnant LOW continued northwestward and had
  dissipated by 22 July.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Eugene may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_EAST/2005_05E_EUGENE.jpg>

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Storm Eugene.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)
  
  *************************************************************************

  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for July:  1 tropical depression **
                      4 tropical storms ++
                      1 super typhoon

  ** - treated as tropical depression by PAGASA and JMA but not by JTWC

  ++ - one of these formed at end of month and became a typhoon in August


                         Sources of Information
                         ----------------------

     Most of the information presented below is based upon tropical
  cyclone warnings and significant tropical weather outlooks issued
  by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center of the U. S. Air Force and
  Navy (JTWC), located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.   In the companion
  tropical cyclone tracks file, I normally annotate track coordinates
  from some of the various Asian warning centers when their center
  positions differ from JTWC's by usually 40-50 nm or more.   All
  references to sustained winds imply a 1-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise noted.

     Michael V. Padua of Naga City in the Philippines, owner of the
  Typhoon 2000 website, normally sends me cyclone tracks based upon
  warnings issued by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the
  Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical & Astronomical Services
  Administration (PAGASA).  Also, Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City, China,
  sends data taken from synoptic observations around the Northwest
  Pacific basin.  A very special thanks to Michael and Chunliang for
  the assistance they so reliably provide.

     In the title line for each storm I have referenced all the cyclone
  names/numbers I have available:   JTWC's depression number, the 
  JMA-assigned name (if any), JMA's tropical storm numeric designator,
  and PAGASA's name for systems forming in or passing through their
  area of warning responsibility.


                Northwest Pacific Tropical Activity for July
                --------------------------------------------

     After a rather quiet June, tropical cyclone activity picked up
  considerably in the Northwest Pacific basin.  Six tropical cyclones
  formed with five becoming named storms.  One of these, Tropical Storm
  Matsa, formed at the end of the month and became a significant typhoon
  in August.  The report on that cyclone will be carried in the August
  summary.  Haitang formed shortly before mid-month from a TUTT-induced
  circulation well northeast of Guam.  The storm followed an unusual
  southwesterly track for a few days which carried it just north of the
  Marianas.  After turning to a more normal westerly track Haitang
  intensified into the season's first super typhoon with peak winds
  reaching an estimated 140 kts (per JTWC).  Fortunately Haitang (named
  Feria by PAGASA) weakened somewhat before making landfall in Taiwan,
  although it was still quite destructive.  The cyclone eventually made
  a final landfall on the Chinese mainland where it dissipated.

     None of the remaining three July storms officially reached typhoon
  intensity.  Tropical Storm Nalgae formed shortly after the middle of the
  month to the north of Wake Island.  Like its predecessor, Haitang, Nalgae
  formed from a TUTT-induced surface LOW.    Unlike the great typhoon,
  however, Nalgae did not menace any land areas, instead remaining far out
  to sea in the eastern portion of the basin.   Tropical Storm Banyan was
  a very large monsoonish system which formed early in the 4th week of
  July in the Philippine Sea about midway between the Philippines and Guam.
  Banyan became a rather strong tropical storm and pursued an almost due
  northerly track toward Japan, recurving as it near Honshu and clipping
  the extreme southeastern tip of the island before transforming into an
  extratropical cyclone and racing up towards the Kuril Islands.  Tropical
  Storm Washi formed late in the month in the South China Sea, moved
  across Hainan Island and eventually into Vietnam.  None of the warning
  centers classified Washi as a typhoon, but there are some meteorologists
  who strongly feel that the system did indeed reach typhoon intensity as
  it traversed the Gulf of Tonkin.

     Reports on the four named cyclones follow.

     In addition to the above mentioned systems, another system was
  classified as a tropical depression by several of the Asian warning
  agencies, being dubbed Tropical Depression Emong by PAGASA.  Emong formed
  east of southern Luzon and moved in a west-northwesterly direction across
  the north-central part of the island into the South China Sea.    The
  system then turned to the north and eventually moved inland into southern
  China near Hong Kong.  In addition to PAGASA, JMA, the Central Weather
  Bureau of Taiwan and the Thai Meteorological Department treated this
  disturbance as a tropical depression.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Depression Emong may be
  found at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_WEST/2005_EMONG_BT.jpg>

     Michael Padua, of Naga City, has placed on the web some observations
  from his weather station taken during the passage of Emong.  These may be
  accessed at:

  Graph: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stormarchives/2005/observations/emong2005.gif>

  Text: http://www.typhoon2000.ph/stormarchives/2005/observations/emong2005.txt>



                         SUPER TYPHOON HAITANG
                       (TC-05W / TY 0505 / FERIA)
                             10 - 20 July
             ----------------------------------------------

  Haitang: contributed by China, is a Chinese flowering crabapple 
           tree; also a Chinese flowering temple

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     Developing from a TUTT-induced disturbance deep within the 
  subtropics, Haitang went on to become the Northwest Pacific basin's
  first super typhoon of the year, reaching a maximum intensity of
  140 kts.  Haitang made landfall on Taiwan as a weakening tropical
  cyclone but still came ashore as a major typhoon with a MSW of 105 kts.
  From there, it moved into China barely at typhoon intensity, the first
  tropical cyclone to affect the Asian mainland of 2005.

     Super Typhoon Haitang originated from an area of deep convection
  that was located under the diffluent region of a TUTT cell approximately
  760 nm east of Iwo Jima.  It was first mentioned in JTWC's STWO at 1800
  UTC 10 July when animated satellite imagery indicated a weak LLCC
  associated with the disturbance.  Drifting slowly west through a light
  to moderate wind shear environment, the system developed rapidly and
  became the subject of a TCFA at 11/0300 UTC.  The first warning became
  valid at 11/1200 UTC, placing the centre of Tropical Depression 05W
  approximately 600 nm east of Iwo Jima.  It was upgraded to a tropical
  storm at 11/1800 UTC and named Haitang six hours later when JMA raised
  their MSW to 35 kts.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     Tropical Storm Haitang remained a weak system on 12 July as it
  drifted slowly towards the west-northwest at 5 to 8 kts.  A HIGH centred
  south of Japan was the primary steering influence, guiding the tropical
  cyclone on a gentle, curving track across the Northwest Pacific.
  Tracking west-southwestward, Haitang strengthened into a 70-kt typhoon
  at 1800 UTC 13 July while located approximately 320 nm southeast of Iwo
  Jima.  Turning towards the west, Haitang continued to steadily intensify
  on 14 July, its forward speed accelerating to around 19 kts.  By the
  time the typhoon entered the Philippine AOR at 15/0600 UTC, the MSW had
  increased to 100 kts, and PAGASA assigned the name Feria.  Strengthening
  continued on 15 July, and Haitang/Feria was upgraded to a super typhoon,
  the first of the year, while located approximately 405 nm south-
  southeast of Okinawa.  The system reached its peak intensity of 140 kts
  at 16/1200 UTC while veering onto a west-northwesterly heading.  At this
  time, water vapor imagery revealed a large, cloud-free eye and strong
  radial outflow.  Haitang maintained an intensity of 140-kts for the rest
  of 16 July as it began to bear down on the island of Taiwan.

     Super Typhoon Haitang began to weaken and was downgraded to a 125-kt
  typhoon at 0600 UTC 17 July approximately 255 nm southeast of Taipei,
  Taiwan.  After changing onto a northwesterly course, Haitang's heading
  swung back to the west, and the typhoon made landfall near Hualein,
  located 85 nm south of Taipei, at 18/0000 UTC with a MSW of 105 kts.
  Once inland, the system rapidly became disorganized, and after almost
  stalling over the mountains of central Taiwan, Haitang slowly staggered
  the rest of the way across the island, re-emerging back over water as a
  60-kt tropical storm at 18/1800 UTC.  Moving west-northwestward, Haitang
  regained typhoon intensity (65-kts) at 19/0000 UTC over the Taiwan
  Strait.  Turning north-northwestwards, the tropical cyclone rapidly
  deteriorated and made landfall near Fuzhou, China, as a weakening 40-kt
  tropical storm around 19/1200 UTC.   At this time, both JTWC and JMA
  issued their final warnings. 
  
     NMCC's peak wind estimate was 130 kts (10 min avg), the highest of all
  the Asian agencies.  Both JMA and PAGASA estimated a peak intensity of
  105 kts; the lowest CP estimated by JMA was 915 mb.  The highest MSW
  estimated by the CWB of Taiwan and HKO were 110 kts and 100 kts, 
  respectively. 

     A graphic displaying the track of Super Typhoon Haitang may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_WEST/2005_05W_HAITANG.jpg>


  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     At least twelve people were reported to have died as a result of
  Haitang.  All of the deaths occurred on Taiwan; there were no reports of
  casualties in mainland China.  Over one million people were evacuated
  from the Chinese provinces of Fujian and Zhejiang before the storm hit.

  (NOTE:  According to information from Huang Chunliang of Fuzhou City,
  there were 5 deaths attributed to Haitang on the Chinese mainland.  See
  Section D-Part V below.  Also, some of the damage figures in Chunliang's
  report differ from those given in the following two paragraphs, which
  were obtained from various international press sources.)

     Haitang's torrential rains caused heavy flooding.  In Cangnan County
  in Zhejiang Province, China, more than 300 people were trapped in their
  homes by floodwaters, which reached more than 3.3 feet (one metre),
  before being rescued.  The county suffered power blackouts, cut water 
  supplies, and power blackouts.    The city of Wenzhou was also badly
  affected by the flooding.  The Wenzhou Flood Control and Drought Relief
  Headquarters reported that 2,612 houses were destroyed and 16,700
  hectares of crops were damaged.  City officials said Haitang caused an
  economic loss of 2.16 billion yuan (261 million US dollars). 

     Haitang battered Taiwan with typhoon-force winds and torrential rains,
  wreaking havoc on the island.     Haitang dumped more than 12 inches
  (305 mm) of rain across northern Taiwan, forcing airports, schools,
  government offices and financial markets to close.  Transportation was
  badly affected with 90% of international flights cancelled and all
  domestic transport suspended.  Strong winds disrupted power supplies with
  around 1.4 million households left without electricity.  Around 1,500
  people in northern Taiwan were evacuated from remote mountainous
  villages.  The floodwaters washed away homes, roads, bridges, and
  decimated over 15,400 hectares of farmland, causing crop losses of nearly
  30%.  Haitang caused a total of T$2.97 billion (US$93 million) of damage
  to agriculture.


  D. Huang Chunliang Report from China
  ------------------------------------

  {Part I} Landfalls
  ==================

     According to the CWB warnings, Severe Typhoon 0505 (HAITANG) made
  landfall in Taiwan Island near Tungao, Ilan County, around 18/0650 UTC
  with a MSW of 51 m/s (100 kts) and a CP of 925 hPa after making a
  counter-clockwise loop offshore east of Hualien.  (The NMCC track also
  described such a loop, despite the fact that the western part of the
  loop was drawn overland near the coastline, i.e., NMCC stated that the
  typhoon made its first landfall near Hualien around 18/0000 UTC with a
  MSW of 55 m/s (110 kts) and a CP of 930 hPa before completing the 7-hr
  loop around 18/0600 UTC and making a second landfall near Ilan around
  18/0650 UTC with a MSW of 45 m/s (90 kts) and a CP of 940 hPa.)   The
  typhoon then entered the waters of Taiwan Strait from Houlong, Miaoli
  County, around 18/1400 UTC. 

     According to the NMCC warnings, Typhoon 0505 (HAITANG) made landfall
  near Huangqi Town, Lianjiang County, Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, around
  19/0910 UTC with a MSW of 33 m/s (65 kts) and a CP of 975 hPa.
  

  {Part II} Meteorological Obs from Taiwan Province
  =================================================

  NOTE: To convert from metres/second (m/s) to kts, divide m/s by
        0.51444, or for a close approximation, simply double the
        m/s value.

  1. Peak Sustained Wind & Gust Obs
  ---------------------------------

     Only those stations that reported sustained winds of gale force or
  gusts of typhoon force are given:

                                          Peak SW            Peak Gust
  Station                            (mps/Local Date)    (mps/Local Date)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  An Bu      (WMO46691)                  19.1/18th           42.0/18th
  Taipei     (WMO46692/58968, Alt 9m)    13.4/18th           37.6/18th
  Keelung    (WMO46694, Alt 3m)          20.3/18th           36.5/18th
  Hualien    (WMO46763/59362, Alt 14m)   28.2/18th           58.5/18th
  Suao       (WMO46706, Alt 3m)          26.3/18th           43.2/18th
  Ilan       (WMO46708, Alt 7m)          22.1/18th           36.8/18th
  Penghu     (WMO46735, Alt 21m)         18.0/18th           30.4/18th
  Tainan     (WMO46741/59358, Alt 14m)   17.1/18th           34.0/18th
  Kaohsiung  (WMO46744, Alt 29m)         18.0/18th           31.4/18th
  Taichung   (WMO46749/5915?, Alt 78m)   10.4/18th           34.0/18th
  Hengchun   (WMO46752, Alt 13m)         17.9/18th           37.9/18th
  Chenggong  (WMO46761, Alt 37m)         20.3/19th           30.1/18th
  Wuci       (WMO46777, Alt 5m)          26.2/18th           41.9/18th
  Dongshi    (WMO46730, Alt 45m)         27.9/18th           40.4/18th
  Lanyu      (WMO46762/59567, Alt 325m)  45.0/18th           63.0/18th
  Mastsu     (WMO46799)                  17.1/18th           39.4/18th


  2. Daily Top-10 Rainfall Obs
  ----------------------------

  [16/1600-17/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0U71          Ilan County          386.5 mm
  02         CWB C0U73          Ilan County          343.5 mm
  03         CWB C1C46          Taoyuan County       338.5 mm
  04         CWB 21C14          Taoyuan County       266.0 mm
  05         CWB C1U51          Ilan County          256.0 mm
  06         CWB A0C54          Taoyuan County       252.0 mm
  07         CWB C0A54          Taipei County        238.0 mm
  08         CWB C1D40          Hsinchu County       232.0 mm
  09         CWB C1A9N          Taipei County        230.0 mm
  10         CWB C0A58          Taipei County        225.5 mm

  [17/1600-18/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C0R10          Pingtung County     1009.0 mm
  02         CWB C1R12          Pingtung County      855.0 mm
  03         CWB C1V30          Kaohsiung County     715.5 mm
  04         CWB C0U71          Ilan County          697.0 mm
  05         CWB C1V27          Kaohsiung County     642.5 mm
  06         CWB C1R14          Pingtung County      638.0 mm
  07         CWB C0V25          Kaohsiung County     565.0 mm
  08         CWB C0O81          Tainan County        562.5 mm
  09         CWB C1V24          Kaohsiung County     555.5 mm
  10         CWB C0M41          Chia-i County        511.5 mm
 
  [18/1600-19/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C1V30          Kaohsiung County     931.0 mm
  02         CWB C1V27          Kaohsiung County     880.0 mm
  03         CWB C0R10          Pingtung County      737.0 mm
  04         CWB C1V22          Kaohsiung County     728.5 mm
  05         CWB C1V19          Kaohsiung County     725.5 mm
  06         CWB C1M61          Chia-i County        689.0 mm
  07         CWB C0M53          Chia-i County        667.5 mm
  08         WMO 46753          Chia-i County        663.0 mm
  09         CWB C1F94          Taitung County       657.0 mm
  10         CWB C1V34          Kaohsiung County     621.5 mm

  [19/1600-20/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         CWB C1R14          Pingtung County      494.0 mm
  02         CWB C0R10          Pingtung County      438.0 mm
  03         CWB C1R12          Pingtung County      436.0 mm
  04         CWB C1R20          Pingtung County      405.5 mm
  05         CWB C1R17          Pingtung County      403.5 mm
  06         CWB C0R15          Pingtung County      397.5 mm
  07         CWB C1R13          Pingtung County      385.0 mm
  08         CWB C1R11          Pingtung County      378.0 mm
  09         CWB C1R16          Pingtung County      373.5 mm
  10         CWB C1V39          Kaohsiung County     372.0 mm
 
  [20/1600-21/1600Z]

  Ranking    Station ID         City/County         Rainfall
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         WMO 46778          Tainan County        209.0 mm
  02         CWB C1O95          Tainan City          206.0 mm
  03         CWB C1R13          Pingtung County      176.0 mm
  04         CWB C1V30          Kaohsiung County     174.0 mm
  05         CWB C1R16          Pingtung County      166.0 mm
  06         CWB C1R12          Pingtung County      162.0 mm
  07         CWB C0X08          Tainan County        161.5 mm
  08         CWB C0R10          Pingtung County      161.0 mm
  09         CWB C1X09          Tainan County        156.5 mm
  10         CWB C1V24          Kaohsiung County     156.0 mm

  Note: Mt. Weiliaosan, Pingtung County (CWB C0R10) reported a 4-day 
  [17/1600-21/1600Z] total rainfall amount of 2345 mm, 1009 mm of which 
  poured down within the 24-hr period ending at 18/1600Z.


  {Part III} Meteorological Obs from Fujian Province
  ==================================================

  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     Following are WMO stations reporting gusts of gale force or higher:

  Station Name                         Station Info              Peak Gust
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Shouning, Ningde City     WMO58744, 27.53N 119.42E, Alt 826m    27 m/s
  Zhouning, Ningde City     WMO58747, 27.15N 119.35E, Alt 900m    22 m/s
  Pingnan, Ningde City      WMO58933, 26.92N 118.98E, Alt 871m    20 m/s
  Zherong, Ningde City      WMO58749, 27.25N 119.90E, Alt 670m    29 m/s
  Fuding, Ningde City       WMO58754, 27.33N 120.20E, Alt 38m     26 m/s
  Xiapu, Ningde City        WMO58843, 26.88N 120.59E, Alt 13m     26 m/s
  Ningde, Ningde City       WMO58846, 26.33N 119.53E, Alt 33m     21 m/s
  Luoyuan, Fuzhou City      WMO58845, 26.50N 119.53E, Alt 57m     27 m/s
  Changle, Fuzhou City      WMO58941, 25.97N 119.50E, Alt 8m      33 m/s
  Lianjiang, Fuzhou City    WMO58848, 26.20N 119.53E, Alt 7m      28 m/s
  Fuzhou, Fuzhou City       WMO58847, 26.08N 119.28E, Alt 85m     24 m/s
  Minhou, Fuzhou City       WMO58844, 26.15N 119.15E, Alt 50m     20 m/s
  Fuqing, Fuzhou City       WMO58942, 25.72N 119.38E, Alt 38m     20 m/s
  Pingtan, Fuzhou City      WMO58944, 25.52N 119.78E, Alt 31m     33 m/s
  Putian, Putian City       WMO58946, 25.43N 119.59E, Alt 29m     24 m/s
  Xianyou, Putian City      WMO58936, 25.37N 118.70E, Alt 77m     20 m/s
  Chongwu, Quanzhou City    WMO59133, 24.90N 118.92E, Alt 23m     18 m/s
  Dehua, Quanzhou City      WMO58935, 25.48N 118.23E, Alt 517m    18 m/s
  Yongchun, Quanzhou City   WMO58934, 25.33N 118.27E, Alt 170m    21 m/s
  Xiamen, Xiamen City       WMO59134, 24.48N 118.07E, Alt 138m    20 m/s
  Tong'an, Xiamen City      WMO59130, 24.72N 118.13E, Alt 15m     18 m/s
  Jian'ou, Nanping City     WMO58737, 27.05N 118.32E, Alt 156m    18 m/s
  Nanping, Nanping City     WMO58834, 26.65N 118.17E, Alt 128m    18 m/s
  Zhenghe, Nanping City     WMO58736, 27.37N 118.82E, Alt 221m    20 m/s


  Following are insular automatic stations reporting peak gusts of gale
  force or higher:

  Taishan   45.6 m/s
  Xiyang    41.1 m/s
  Pingtan   39.8 m/s
  Nanri     35.8 m/s
  Weitou    22.4 m/s
 

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 72-hr period ending at 20/0000 UTC, rains > 200 mm were
  recorded in 9 counties/sub-cities of Fuzhou and Ningde Cities with
  Zherong County reporting the highest amount of 665 mm.  (Guanyang, Ningde
  City, reported a 3-day total amounting to 780 mm----the highest of the
  hydrological stations during the same period.)

  Extrema from Zherong County, Ningde City:

  Daily rainfall: 472 mm [18/0000-19/0000Z] (a new record for the station)
  6-hr rainfall: 158 mm [18/1800-19/0000Z]
  3-hr rainfall: 130 mm [19/0000-19/0300Z]


  3. Obs from Fuzhou City
  -----------------------

     The WMO station 58847 (Fuzhou) is only a few kilometers NE of my home.
  According to those reports from the station, we had 123 mm of rains
  within 24 hrs [18/0000-19/0000Z] before Haitang made landfall near
  Fuzhou's Lianjiang County as a minimal typhoon around 19/0910Z (per
  NMCC).  This was not too long before we received another very wet day,
  when the station reported 141 mm of rain [21/0000-22/0000Z], mainly
  recorded within 12 hrs [21/1200-22/0000Z]  (It should be noted that
  108 mm out of the total poured down within 6 hrs [21/1200-21/1800Z] from
  the periphery of the well-removed weakening depression.)   One of the
  urban stations even recorded rainfall amounting to 219 mm during the
  same 12 hrs [21/1200-22/0000Z]!

     As for the winds, the majority of the peak gusts were reported by
  stations in the city 24 hrs or so before landfall occurred when the
  still powerful typhoon was roaming over Taiwan Island.   The urban area
  (WMO58847) reported 47 knots, while another two WMO stations, Changle
  (WMO58941) and Pingtan (WMO58944) both reported minimal typhoon force.
  Additionally, an insular station located on Pingtan Island recorded gusts
  topping 77 knots.

    Nearly 9000 trees in the urban area of Fuzhou City were uprooted or
  partly damaged by Haitang's winds, though that occurred mainly on the
  18th.  The day of landfall, the 19th, seemed much calmer for my location.
  Actually, we even observed a decent rainbow on one occasion in the
  morning--very rare here during typhoons.  (Interestingly, a press report
  indicated that another rainbow had been observed in Taipei City on the
  same day.)


  {Part IV} Meteorological Obs from Zhejiang Province
  ===================================================

  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     The most significant two gust reports, 41.3 m/s and 41.1 m/s, came
  from the automatic stations named Zhaoshandu (located in Rui'an City)
  and Haishan (located in Yuhuan County), respectively.


  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 96-hr period ending at 21/0000 UTC, rains > 400 mm were
  reported by 13 stations (including hydrological stations) with Futou,
  Yueqing City reporting the highest amount of 840 mm.

  Extrema from Station Yueqing:

  3-day rainfall: 793 mm [18/0000-21/0000Z]
  24-hr rainfall: 513 mm [19/0300-20/0300Z]
  Daily rainfall: 487 mm [19/0000-20/0000Z]


  3. Hydrological Obs
  -------------------

     Two hydrological stations reported record-breaking water levels
  during the storm:

  Station    Peak Water Level      Former Record
  ------------------------------------------------
  Yueqing     6.77 m [19/2020Z]     6.40 m [2004]
  Daitou     19.19 m [19/0542Z]    19.18 m [1994]


  {Part V} Rainfall Obs from Other Provinces
  ==========================================

  a. Lushan, Jiangxi Province (WMO58506, 29.58N 115.98E, Alt 1165m)
       reported 204 mm from [20/0000-21/0000Z]
  b. Changde, Hu'nan Province (WMO57662, 29.05N 111.68E, Alt 35m)
       reported 208 mm from [22/0000-23/0000Z]
  c. Zhengzhou, He'nan Province (WMO57083, 34.72N 113.65E, Alt 111m)
       reported 109 mm from [21/0900-22/0900Z]
  d. Xingyang, He'nan Province (WMO57081, 34.80N 113.43E, Alt 141m)
       reported 282 mm from [21/0900-22/0900Z]
  e. Qinyang, He'nan Province (WMO53972, 35.12N 112.92E, Alt 120m)
       reported 162 mm from [21/0900-22/0900Z]
  f. Jiaozuo, He'nan Province (WMO53982, 35.23N 113.27E, Alt 113m)
       reported 121 mm from [21/0900-22/0900Z]
 

  {Part VI} Damage and Casualties
  ===============================

     Haitang, the first 2005 TC/typhoon that made landfall in China, has
  turned out to be the strongest one to hit Taiwan Province in nearly five
  years, since Severe Typhoon 0010 (Bilis), which according to CWB, made
  landfall in Taiwan on the 22nd of August, 2000, with a MSW of 53 m/s
  (105 kts) and a CP of 930 hPa.   Press reports indicated that Typhoon
  Haitang caused 12 deaths and left five people missing in Taiwan.
  Agricultural losses in the province were estimated to be at least
  NT$ 4.2 billion.
 
     Preliminary statistics indicated that the typhoon caused 11.92 billion
  yuan of direct economic losses in Fujian, Zhejiang and Jiangxi and was 
  responsible for 5 deaths as well as 6 missing in the provinces, where 
  10,185,000 residents were affected, 18,000 houses were toppled and
  326,000 ha of farmland was damaged.  Some 863,000 and 558,000 people
  were evacuated in Fujian and Zhejiang, respectively, due to the typhoon.
  

  {Part VII} References (All in Chinese version)
  ==============================================

  http://www.nmc.gov.cn>       
  http://www.cwb.gov.tw>       
  http://www.fjqx.gov.cn>      
  http://www.zjwater.com>      


  E. Huang Chunliang Report from Japan
  ------------------------------------

  Station          Min SLP (hPa)     Peak SW (m/s)    Peak Gust (m/s)   
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  Miyakojima     993.1 [17/0825Z]   17.9 [17/0930Z]   34.5 [17/1209Z]
  Ishigakijima   980.6 [17/1455Z]   29.1 [17/1610Z]   47.6 [17/1546Z]
  Iriomotejima   -----#[--------]   24.8 [17/1420Z]   45.9 [17/1549Z]
  Yonagunijima   967.9 [17/1903Z]   34.9 [17/1850Z]   54.8 [17/1843Z]


  Station              Maximum Daily Rainfall (mm)
  ------------------------------------------------
  Miyakojima            106.0  [17/1500-18/1500Z]
  Ishigakijima          181.0  [17/1500-18/1500Z]
  Iriomotejima          335.0* [17/1500-18/1500Z]
  Yonagunijima          231.5  [17/1500-18/1500Z]

  Note 1 (#): Iriomotejima didn't reported a min SLP due to fault of the 
  facility.

  Note 2 (*): Record-breaking value for the station.

  Note 3:   Miyakojima is   WMO47927, 24.79N 125.28E, Alt 40 m
            Ishigakijima is WMO47918, 24.34N 124.16E, Alt  6 m
            Iriomotejima is WMO47917, 24.39N 123.75E, Alt  9 m
            Yonagunijima is WMO47912, 24.47N 123.01E, Alt 30 m

  (Sections A, B and C written by Kevin Boyle; sections D and E written
  by Huang Chunliang)



                         TROPICAL STORM NALGAE
                          (TC-06W / TS 0506)
                              18 - 25 July
               -----------------------------------------

  Nalgae: contributed by North Korea, is the Korean word for wing,
          or flying

  A. Storm Origins
  ----------------

     Tropical Storm Nalgae, like Super Typhoon Haitang (TC-05W) which 
  preceded it, originated in association with a TUTT cell within the 
  subtropics.  It was first mentioned in a Significant Tropical Weather 
  Outlook at 0000 UTC 18 July as an area of convection approximately 
  135 nm north-northeast of Wake Island.  Remarks in this statement 
  included: "Recent animated multi-spectral satellite imagery indicates 
  an upper LOW which may have induced a low-level circulation centre. 
  Over the past 4 hours, Wake Island has reported surface winds from 
  the southwest at 12 knots with gusts to 18 knots."  An upper-level 
  analysis indicated a low to moderate wind shear environment with 
  favourable diffluence aloft.  The system slowly developed over the 
  next two days and a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert was issued at 
  19/2230 UTC after multi-spectral satellite imagery showed rapidly 
  increasing deep convection.  The first warning was released at 
  20/0000 UTC. 


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     At 0000 UTC 20 July Tropical Depression 06W was located approximately 
  325 nm north-northwest of Wake Island and was drifting towards the 
  northwest at 6 kts along the southwestern periphery of a mid-level 
  steering ridge situated to the northeast.  The system quickly 
  intensified, and was upgraded to a 45-kt tropical storm at 20/0600 
  UTC.  JMA assigned the name Nalgae six hours later after their 10-min avg
  MSW reached 35 kts.  No further strengthening occurred on 20 July as
  Nalgae continued northwestward.  However, Nalgae did intensify a little
  more, reaching its peak intensity of 50 kts at 21/0000 UTC while centred
  560 nm north-northwest of Wake Island.

     Despite losing much of its supporting deep convection, Tropical Storm 
  Nalgae managed to maintain its peak intensity of 50 kts for a further 
  twelve hours on 21 July before quickly weakening to a 35-kt tropical 
  storm at 0000 UTC 22 July while located approximately 785 nm north-
  northwest of Wake Island.  However, the system recovered slightly on 
  22 July as it rounded the steering ridge, the MSW nudging back up to 
  40 kts at 22/1200 UTC.  The intensity began to fall again after the 
  LLCC became partially-exposed at 23/0000 UTC and Nalgae was downgraded
  to a tropical depression at 23/1200 UTC, the time that JTWC issued the
  final warning.  However, Nalgae remained a tropical storm in JMA
  warnings for a further 48 hours as it continued moving slowly towards
  the northeast.  JMA wrote the last statement at 25/1800 UTC and Nalgae's
  remnants gradually dissipated on 26 July.
 
     JMA, NMCC, and CWB of Taiwan, all estimated peak intensities of 
  45 kts.  HKO and PAGASA never issued any warnings on this system, which 
  remained outside their respective AORs.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Nalgae may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_WEST/2005_06W_NALGAE.jpg>

 
  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     There were no reports of damages or casualties in association with 
  Tropical Storm Nalgae.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)



                         TROPICAL STORM BANYAN
                          (TC-07W / STS 0507)
                              20 - 31 July
               -----------------------------------------

  Banyan: contributed by Hong Kong, is a type of tree commonly found
          in the southern part of China

  A. Introduction and Storm Origins
  ---------------------------------

     This large, rather lax tropical cyclone was the first storm to form
  in the monsoon trough in nearly two months, discounting the weak system,
  Tropical Depression Emong, that affected the Philippines in early July.
  Banyan's immense circulation dominated the Western North Pacific for
  almost a week, and just narrowly missed the coastline of southeastern
  Japan on 26 July.

     A large tropical disturbance, the precursor of Tropical Storm Banyan,
  was first mentioned as a suspect area in JTWC's STWO at 1230 UTC 20 July
  when animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery indicated organizing
  deep convection around a broad LLCC approximately 460 nm west-northwest
  of Guam.  An upper-air analysis revealed an area of low to moderate wind
  shear and favourable diffluence aloft.  By 21/0230 UTC the system had
  organized sufficiently to warrant the issuance of a TCFA.  The first
  warning was released on Tropical Depression 07W at 21/1200 UTC.  It was
  assigned the name Banyan at 21/1800 UTC when JMA upped their 10-min avg
  MSW to 35 kts.  JTWC upgraded Banyan to a 35-kt tropical storm at 22/0000
  UTC, placing the centre approximately 440 nm west-northwest of Guam.  At
  this time, animated and microwave satellite imagery, combined with ship
  and buoy observations, indicated a broad circulation with the strongest
  winds and deep convection located on the periphery of the system, a
  characteristic trait that Banyan would retain for the rest of its life.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     During its development phase Banyan had been virtually stationary,
  covering very little ground (or ocean), but a slow northward drift began
  on 22 July as a low to mid-level ridge located to the east began to
  assert its steering influence.   Continuing steadily northward, Tropical
  Storm Banyan began to slowly strengthen over the next couple of days and
  reached a peak intensity of 60 kts at 1200 UTC 24 July approximately
  660 nm south-southwest of Tokyo, Japan.  This was maintained for only six
  hours, and the MSW began to steadily drop at 24/1800 UTC.  Reasons why
  Banyan didn't quite attain typhoon intensity include: 1) failure to
  completely tighten up its inner core, 2) overall asymmetry of the
  tropical cyclone, i.e. the deep convection was greatly suppressed over
  the western semicircle, and 3) the inability of the deep convection
  to consolidate over the LLCC.

     Accelerating northwards, Tropical Storm Banyan continued to weaken.
  The tropical cyclone turned north-northeastward early on 26 July, then 
  northeastward as it crested the axis of the subtropical ridge located
  to the southeast.  The associated deep convection diminished as the storm
  began to suffer from the effects of dry air intrusion, cooler SSTs, and
  stronger vertical shear.  Tropical Storm Banyan continued northeastward
  and passed approximately 60 nm southeast of Tokyo, Japan, at 1200 UTC
  26 July with gale-force winds and heavy rains arriving well in advance of
  the centre.  Banyan was declared extratropical at 27/0000 UTC with JTWC
  issuing the final warning at this time.    JMA, however, maintained
  Banyan as a tropical storm until 28/0000 UTC.  After passing south of
  Kamchatka on 29 July, former Tropical Storm Banyan was last seen heading
  in the general direction of Alaska.

     The lowest CP estimated by JMA was 980 hPa.  Among the Asian warning
  agencies, the highest 10-min avg MSW estimate was 60 kts from NMCC.
  JMA and the CWB of Taiwan both estimated the peak MSW at 55 kts.

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Banyan may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_WEST/2005_07W_BANYAN.jpg>


  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     There have been no reports of casualties as a result of Tropical Storm
  Banyan.    However, torrential rains, up to 16 inches in some coastal
  areas, forced the evacuation of 320 people in central Japan amid concerns
  of landslides.  Two people were rescued by helicopter after their yacht
  sank.  Coastal roads were closed and several train, flight and ferry
  services were suspended.  Several oil refineries were forced to halt
  operations, most notably Japan's biggest oil refinery--Nippon Oil Co--
  which halted sea deliveries of products at its Negishi refinery and
  Yokohama oil terminal.   Idemitsu Kosan Co and Cosmo Oil Co also
  suspended operations at sea at some facilities.


  D. Huang Chunliang Report from Japan
  ------------------------------------

  {Part I}. Landfall
  ==================

    According to the JMA warnings, Typhoon 0507 (BANYAN) made landfall
  near Kamogawa City, Chiba Prefecture, around 26/1100 UTC with a MSW of
  25 m/s and a CP of 980 hPa.


  {Part II}. Meteorological Obs from Tokyo District Meteorological
             Observatory
  ================================================================

  Note 1: All the obs in this part were reported within the precinct of
  Tokyo District Meteorological Observatory, including the prefectures of
  Niigata, Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, Ibaraki, Gumma, Tochigi, Saitama,
  Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Yamanashi, Nagano, Shizuoka, Gifu, Aichi and Mie.

  Note 2: "#" = record-breaking values of July for relevant stations.


  1. Top-5 Daily Rainfall [25/1500-26/1500Z] Obs
  ----------------------------------------------

  Ranking    Prefecture        Station           Rainfall (mm)
  ------------------------------------------------------------
  01         Shizuoka          Amagisan          418
  02         Kanagawa          Hakone            400 #
  03         Saitama           Tokigawa          266
  04         Saitama           Urayama           266 #
  05         Tochigi           Happogahara       206
  05         Saitama           Chichibu          202


  2. Top-1 Peak Sustained Wind (10-min avg) Obs
  ---------------------------------------------

  Ranking    Station                                      Peak wind (mps)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  01         Choshi, Chiba (WMO47648, Alt 20m)            16.1 [25/2120Z]


  3. Top-1 Peak Gust Obs
  ----------------------

  Ranking    Station                                      Peak wind (mps)
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  01         Hachijojima, Tokyo (WMO47678, Alt 79m)       33.0 [26/0107Z]


  4. Top-5 SLP Obs
  ----------------

  Ranking    Station                               Min SLP (hPa)
  ---------------------------------------------------------------
  01         Miyakejima, Tokyo (WMO47677)        976.6 [26/0811Z]
  02         Hachijojima, Tokyo (WMO47678)       978.2 [26/0704Z]
  03         Katsuura, Chiba (WMO47674)          978.9 [26/1133Z]
  04         Choshi, Chiba (WMO47648)            979.3 [26/1303Z]
  05         Ojima, Tokyo (WMO47675)             979.6 [26/0831Z]


  {Part III} References
  =====================

  http://www.tokyo-jma.go.jp/sub_index/bosai/disaster/ty0507/ty0507_kanku.pdf>

  (Japanese version only)

  (Sections A, B and C written by Kevin Boyle; Section D written by
  Huang Chunliang)



                          TROPICAL STORM WASHI
                           (TC-08W / TS 0508)
                              28 - 31 July
                ----------------------------------------

  Washi: contributed by Japan, means 'eagle'; also Aquila, the
         constellation of the eagle

  A. Storm Origins
  ----------------

     At 0300 UTC 28 July a STWO was re-issued to include a persistent area
  of convection located approximately 305 nm south of Hong Kong, China. 
  A 27/2201 UTC QuikScat pass revealed a broad LLCC with the strongest 
  winds on the equatorward side while both multi-spectral and enhanced 
  infrared satellite imagery depicted most of the deep convection in 
  the southern semicircle of the disturbance.  An upper-level analysis 
  indicated that the system was embedded within an environment of low 
  to moderate wind shear.  The deep convection increased and consolidated
  around the LLCC and, on the basis of this, a TCFA was released at
  28/1730 UTC.  The first warning became valid at 28/1800 UTC.


  B. Track and Intensity History
  ------------------------------

     Tropical Depression 08W intensified, and was upgraded to a 35-kt 
  tropical storm at 1200 UTC 29 July while located approximately 130 nm 
  east of Hainan, China.  By this time JMA's MSW had also reached 35 kts
  (10-min avg) and the system was named Washi by that agency.  Drifting
  west-northwestwards, Tropical Storm Washi made landfall on the southeast
  coast of Hainan in the vicinity of Xinglong at around 30/0000 UTC.
  Continuing west-northwestwards, Washi cleared the island and moved into
  the warm waters of the Gulf of Tonkin where it strengthened to its peak
  intensity of 45-kts at 30/1200 UTC approximately 180 nm southeast of
  Hanoi, Vietnam.  From there, Washi turned toward the west and came ashore
  roughly 45 nm south of Hanoi, Vietnam, shortly after 31/0000 UTC with the
  MSW estimated at 45 kts.  The final warning was issued by JTWC at 31/0600
  UTC after the storm had tracked further inland and begun to weaken.
  JMA maintained Washi as a tropical storm for another twelve hours before
  downgrading the system to a tropical depression on their last statement
  at 31/1800 UTC.  The remnants of Tropical Storm Washi continued further
  inland and could no longer be distinguished in satellite imagery by
  1 August.  (Editor's Note:  All the Asian warning agencies rated Washi's
  peak 10-min avg MSW at 45 kts except for NMCC, who estimated the peak
  winds at 50 kts.)

     A graphic displaying the track of Tropical Storm Washi may be found
  at the following link:

     http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/database/tc_besttracks_graphics/PACIFIC_WEST/2005_08W_WASHI.jpg>


  C. Damage and Casualties
  ------------------------

     According to news sources, Tropical Storm Washi left at least two 
  people dead and injured two others in Vietnam.  Two persons were still
  unaccounted for as of the writing of this report.  The storm destroyed
  27 houses and blew the roofs off 206 other homes.  Three 30-ton ships 
  and two barges were also wrecked.  Large sections of dykes in the 
  northern provinces of Vietnam were damaged, and destruction of 
  aquaculture totaled 26,500 ha.  In addition, more than 28,000 ha of 
  rice and subsidiary food crops were inundated.


  D. Huang Chunliang Report from China
  ------------------------------------

  {Part I} Landfalls
  ==================

     According to the NMCC warnings, Severe Tropical Storm 0508 (Washi)
  made landfall near Changpo Town, Qionghai City, Hainan Province around
  29/2125 UTC with a MSW of 25 m/s (50 kts) and a CP of 984 hPa.  Crossing
  the island, the storm entered the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin from
  Danzhou City, Hainan Province, as a Tropical Storm around 30/0800 UTC.

     According to the NMCC warnings, Tropical Storm 0508 (Washi) made
  landfall over the coast of northern Vietnam around 31/0510 UTC with a
  MSW of 23 m/s (45 kts) and a CP of 984 hPa.


  {Part II} Meteorological Obs from Hainan Province
  =================================================

  1. Gust Obs
  -----------

     Gusts of gale force or higher were reported by a few cities/counties
  during the storm.  A special meteorological mission squad recorded a
  peak gust of 34.3 m/s in Mulantou Town, Wenchang City.

  2. Rainfall Obs
  ---------------

     During the 72-hr period ending at 31/0000 UTC, rains > 200 mm were
  recorded in 3 counties/cities with Dongfang City reporting the highest
  amount:  345 mm of rain were recorded from 29/0000 through 31/0000 UTC.


  {Part III} Damage and Benefit for Hainan Province
  =================================================

     Damage was mild with 56,000 people being affected by the storm and
  direct economic losses of 140 million yuan being reported.  The only
  storm associated death was due to a lightning strike.

     Compared with its damage, the benefit from Washi was more remarkable.
  TS Washi evidently eased the marathon drought, which had lasted as long
  as 15 months in the province, which had already been TC-free for
  20 months since Typhoon 0320 (Nepartak) in November, 2003.


  {Part IV} References (All in Chinese version)
  =============================================

  http://www.nmc.gov.cn>       
  http://www.grmc.gov.cn>      


  E. Rainfall Obs from Vietnam
  ----------------------------

     Only 24-hr amount(s) >= 100 mm listed:

  THANH HOA (19.75N 105.78E)                125.1 mm [30/12-31/12Z]


  F. Was Washi a typhoon at landfall?
  -----------------------------------

     During its transit of the Gulf of Tonkin and up to the time of land-
  fall in Vietnam, Washi developed a feature which strongly resembled a
  bonafide eye.  Yet none of the warnings agencies assigned a MSW greater
  than 45 kts (including JTWC) except for Beijing, which estimated a peak
  10-min avg MSW of 50 kts.    A good bit of e-mail discussion ensued
  regarding whether or not Washi attained typhoon intensity in the Gulf
  of Tonkin.   Mark Lander, Roger Edson and Karl Hoarau all stated that
  they definitely felt that Washi was a typhoon, based on the signature
  of the cyclone in visible, infrared and microwave imagery.   Many times
  in the past tropical cyclones which entered the Gulf of Tonkin with
  their circulations still intact underwent significant intensification,
  and it appeared that Washi had done the same.   There were some, however,
  who suggested that the eye might be a 'sucker hole', i.e., a peculiar
  cloud formation which might look like an eye but really is only a
  coincidental line up of cloud images.  Roger Edson pointed out, arguing
  for the existence of a true eye, that the 'eye' appeared in the same
  comparative location in the different microwave bands.   'Sucker holes'
  usually do not show up in the same location in both the 85 GHz and 37 GHz
  bands.

     Jack Beven, however, pointed out that there were some alternate
  interpretations of the satellite imagery.  Jack indicated that he
  likely would not use an IR eye pattern in performing Dvorak analysis.
  However, he did point out that at one stage an analyst might obtain
  a Data-T number of 4.0 (65 kts) by use of visible imagery.  Jack was of
  the opinion that most likely he would obtain a Data-T of 3.5 (55 kts)
  from the IR imagery.  Even so, that is stronger than any of the warning
  centers bar NHCC analyzed the cyclone to be.  Unfortunately, no surface
  observations from the landfall zone have become available which might
  help to settle the argument.

  (Sections A, B and C by Kevin Boyle; Sections D and E by Huang Chunliang;
  Section F by Gary Padgett)

  *************************************************************************

  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for July:  1 depression


                North Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for July
                ---------------------------------------------

     Following is a report by Huang Chunliang on a system which was
  classified as a deep depression by the India Meteorological Department.
  The dates of the depression were 29 - 31 July, and it was referenced by
  SAB as disturbance 90B.  A special thanks to Chunliang for compiling
  and sending the report.


  {Part I}. Introduction (time in local, i.e., UTC+5.5 hrs)
  =========================================================

     A low-pressure area formed over the northwest Bay of Bengal off the
  Gangetic West Bengal coast on the 28th.       It concentrated into a
  Depression on the 29th with its centre close to Balasore (21.52N/86.93E)
  and remained practically stationary on the 30th but became a Deep
  Depression.  The Deep Depression over the Northwestern Bay off the Orissa
  coast moved in a westerly direction and was centered close to Keojhargarh
  (21.63N/85.58E) at 1730 hrs IST on the 30th after making landfall over
  the coastal area of Northern Orissa that day.   It remained practically
  stationary close to Keonjhargarh in Orissa on the 31st.   Moving in a
  west-northwesterly direction, it weakened rapidly into a well-marked
  low-pressure area over central parts of Madhya Pradeshon on the 1st of
  August and further into a low-pressure area over northwest Madhya Pradesh
  and adjoining East Rajasthan on the 2nd .  It became less marked on the
  3rd.  (Slightly edited from the INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENTAL INDIA
  WEEKLY WEATHER REPORT.

  Note: Neither NRL nor JTWC ever mentioned the system, while SAB
  temporarily numbered it 90B and once evaluated it as a T1.5 system at
  29/0830 UTC.


  {Part II}. Rainfall Obs from India (only daily amounts >= 10 cm listed)
  =======================================================================

     Station/State                    Rainfall     Dates/Time
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

  Chandbali, ORISSA                     25 cm    [28/03-29/03Z]
  Thakurmunda, ORISSA                   23 cm    [28/03-29/03Z]
  Rajkanika, ORISSA                     19 cm    [28/03-29/03Z]
  Tikarpada, ORISSA                     31 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Rairakhol, ORISSA                     31 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Athagarh, ORISSA                      29 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Khandapada, ORISSA                    29 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Hindol, ORISSA                        26 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Akhupada, ORISSA                      25 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Chandbali, ORISSA                     24 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Narai, ORISSA                         24 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Athamalik, ORISSA                     24 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Mundali, ORISSA                       22 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Rajkanika, ORISSA                     22 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Rajkishorenagar, ORISSA               22 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Dhenkanal, ORISSA                     22 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Cuttack, ORISSA                       21 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Jamankira, ORISSA                     21 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Pallahara, ORISSA                     20 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Rengali, ORISSA                       20 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Talcher, ORISSA                       20 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Angul, ORISSA                         19 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Jenapur, ORISSA                       18 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Kendrapara, ORISSA                    18 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Binika, ORISSA                        18 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Narsinghpur, ORISSA                   17 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Bargarh, ORISSA                       17 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Sambalpur, ORISSA                     17 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  K-Nagar, ORISSA                       16 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Bijepur, ORISSA                       16 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Nimapad, ORISSA                       16 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Bhbaneswar, ORISSA                    15 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Phulbani, ORISSA                      15 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Khiramal, ORISSA                      14 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Kuchinda, ORISSA                      14 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Nayagarh, ORISSA                      14 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Kantamal, ORISSA                      14 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Alipingal, ORISSA                     13 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Dunguripalli, ORISSA                  13 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Jajpur, ORISSA                        12 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Jhumpura, ORISSA                      12 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Hirakud, ORISSA                       12 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Pipli, ORISSA                         12 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Tikabali, ORISSA                      12 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Harbhanga, ORISSA                     12 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Kakatpur, ORISSA                      11 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Joshipur, ORISSA                      10 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Sohella, ORISSA                       10 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Sonepur, ORISSA                       10 cm    [29/03-30/03Z]
  Ambabhona, ORISSA                     31 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Pallahara, ORISSA                     26 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Bargarh, ORISSA                       21 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Bijepur, ORISSA                       20 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Nakatideul, ORISSA                    19 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Khairamal, ORISSA                     19 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Rengali, ORISSA                       19 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Phulbani, ORISSA                      15 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Rairakhol, ORISSA                     14 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Sambalpur, ORISSA                     12 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Kuchinda, ORISSA                      12 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Jamankira, ORISSA                     12 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Athamalik, ORISSA                     12 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Kantamal, ORISSA                      11 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Padampur, ORISSA                      10 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Rajkishore Nagar, ORISSA              10 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Malanjkhand, MADHYA PRADESH           14 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Baraseoni, MADHYA PRADESH             11 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Katghora, CHHATTISGARH                19 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Raipur, CHHATTISGARH                  18 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Arang, CHHATTISGARH                   16 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Rajim, CHHATTISGARH                   15 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Bilaspur, CHHATTISGARH                15 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Gariaband, CHHATTISGARH               14 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Sarangarh, CHHATTISGARH               14 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Mahasamund, CHHATTISGARH              11 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Dhamtari, CHHATTISGARH                10 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Raigarh, CHHATTISGARH                 10 cm    [30/03-31/03Z]
  Katangi, MADHYA PRADESH               18 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Deori, MADHYA PRADESH                 17 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Indore, MADHYA PRADESH                16 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Mhou, MADHYA PRADESH                  16 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Ratlam, MADHYA PRADESH                15 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Panchmari, MADHYA PRADESH             14 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Barnagar, MADHYA PRADESH              14 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Khachrode, MADHYA PRADESH             14 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Tarana, MADHYA PRADESH                13 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Serohi, MADHYA PRADESH                13 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Sailana, MADHYA PRADESH               12 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Shahjapur, MADHYA PRADESH             12 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Kurwai, MADHYA PRADESH                12 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Mahidpur, MADHYA PRADESH              11 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
  Khurai, MADHYA PRADESH                11 cm    [31/03-01/03Z]
 
  *************************************************************************

  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHWEST AUSTRALIA/SOUTHEAST INDIAN OCEAN (AUW) - From 90E to 135E

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones

  *************************************************************************

  NORTHEAST AUSTRALIA/CORAL SEA (AUE) - From 135E to 160E

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones

  *************************************************************************

  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for July:  No tropical cyclones


                  South Pacific Tropical Activity for July
                  ----------------------------------------

     The Fiji TCWC issued gale warnings on 25 and 26 July in association
  with a system classified as a weak LOW.  The LOW moved from a position
  near 20S/173W at 25/0000 UTC to near 22S/158W at 26/2000 UTC.  Gales
  of up to 40 kts were forecast to be occurring within 200 nm of the
  center in the southeastern semicircle.   No reference was made of this
  system being tropical, and given the latitude and time of year, likely
  was hybrid or non-tropical in nature.  No track was included for this
  LOW in the July cyclone tracks file.

  *************************************************************************

         SPECIAL FEATURE - SOURCES OF TROPICAL CYCLONE INFORMATION

     The purpose of this section is to list some websites where many and
  varied types of tropical cyclone information are archived.  Many readers
  will know about these already, but for the benefit of those who don't,
  I wanted to include them. 

  (1) Aircraft Reconnaissance Information
  ---------------------------------------

     Various types of messages from reconnaissance aircraft may be
  retrieved from the following FTP site:

     ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/products/nhc/recon/>

     Information regarding how to interpret the coded reconnaissance
  messages may be found at the following URL:

     http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/reconlist.shtml>

  Links are also included to websites with further information about the
  U. S. Air Force 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron and the NOAA Air-
  craft Operations Center.

  (2) Archived Advisories
  -----------------------

     All the advisory products (public advisories, forecast/advisories,
  strike probabilities, discussions, various graphics) issued by TPC/NHC
  are archived on TPC's website.  For the current year (using 2004 as an
  example), the archived products can be found at:

     http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2004/index.shtml>

  Links to tropical products archives for earlier years are available at
  the following URL:

     http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pastall.shtml>

  JTWC warnings for past storms are archived on the NRL Monterry website:

     http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/tc_pages/tc_home.html>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.

     I am not aware at the moment of any other TCWC which archives all
  its tropical cyclone warning/advisory products for public access, but
  if I learn of any, I will add them to this list.

  (3) Satellite Imagery
  ---------------------

     Satellite images of tropical cyclones in various sensor bands are
  available on the NRL Monterrey and University of Wisconsin websites,
  courtesy of Jeff Hawkins and Chris Velden and their associates.  The
  links are:

     http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/tc_pages/tc_home.html>

     http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic/tropic.html>

  On the NRL site, the link to past years can be found in the upper left 
  corner of the screen.  For the CIMSS site, a link to data archives is 
  located in the lower left portion of the screen.

     Additional tropical satellite imagery, along with looping ability for
  composite microwave imagery for the Western Hemisphere north of the
  equator, can be found at:

  (1) For the Eastern North Pacific:

     http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/trop-epac.html>

  (2) For the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea:

     http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/trop-atl.html>

     I'm sure there are other sites with available imagery available, and
  as I learn of them, I will add the links to this list.

  *************************************************************************

                              EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the August, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.

  *************************************************************************

  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, Chris
  Landsea, and John Diebolt):

    http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/>
    http://www.typhoon2000.ph>
    http://mpittweather.com>
    ftp://ftp.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/pub/landsea/padgett/>
    http://www.tropicalcyclone2005.com/>


     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:

    http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/tropicalcyclone>
    

                    TROPICAL CYCLONE REPORTS AVAILABLE

     JTWC now has available on its website the Annual Tropical Cyclone
  Report (ATCR) for 2004 (2003-2004 season for the Southern Hemisphere).
  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.

     The URL is:  http://199.10.200.33/jtwc.html>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2004 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, storm reports for all the 2004 Atlantic
  and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as well as
  track charts and reports on storms from earlier years. 

     The URL is:  http://www.nhc.noaa.gov>


     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  PREPARED BY

  Gary Padgett
  E-mail:  [email protected]
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  Kevin Boyle  (Eastern Atlantic, Western Northwest Pacific, South
                China Sea)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Huang Chunliang  (Assistance with Western Northwest Pacific, South
                    China Sea)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)
  E-mail:  [email protected]

  *************************************************************************
  *************************************************************************

Document: summ0507.htm
Updated: 14th October, 2005

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